Table 3.

Clinical and biologic variables associated with overall mortality in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma based on Cox univariable and multivariable models

Univariate analysisMultivariate analysis
VariablesHR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)P
Overall survival
Gender (male)1.35 (0.40–4.50)0.63
Age/10 (y)0.9 (0.64–1.25)0.52
Child-Pugh
 A11
 B1.61 (0.83–3.14)0.163.43 (1.05–11.2)0.041
 C4.38 (2.07–9.30)0.000126.55 (1.83–23.53)0.004
Creatinine >801.19 (0.66–2.16)0.57
AST (>2 ULN)1.02 (0.55–1.88)0.96
ALT (>2 ULN)0.84 (0.36–1.99)0.69
PAL (>2 ULN)0.52 (0.24–1.14)0.10
GGT (>2 ULN)1.29 (0.60–2.78)0.51
AFP/101.0 (1.0–1.0)0.24
Platelet/1000.75 (0.47–1.20)0.23
Diabetes0.79 (0.37–1.70)0.55
Tumor portal thrombosis4.4 (2.33–8.33)<0.00012.15 (0.99–4.64)0.052
Number of HCC >10.74 (0.41–1.35)0.33
Size of HCC/101.01 (1.01–1.19)0.0321.10 (0.97–1.24)0.13
Serum endocan > 52.39 (1.31–4.35)0.0041.16 (0.48–2.79)0.74
Serum syndecan-1 > 503.32 (1.40–7.84)0.0066.21 (1.90–20.30)0.0025
Serum glypican-3 >2.51.58 (0.86–2.92)0.14
Serum VEGF >2401.27 (0.70–2.30)0.43

NOTE: In bold, variables with P value < 0.05 in univariate analysis.

Abbreviations: ALT, alanine aminotransferase; ALP, alkaline phosphatase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; GGT, gamma-glutamyl transferase level; ULN, upper limit of normal.