Table 1.

Characteristics of alcoholic cirrhotic patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma

VariableTotal (n = 295)No HCC (n = 170)Early HCC (n = 58)Advanced HCC (n = 67)P
Age at inclusiona62 (55;71)59 (51;65)69 (61;74)69 (62;76.5)<0.0001
Gender (male)b253 (85.8)144 (84.7)47 (81.0)62 (92.5)0.13
Diabetesb51 (17.3)30 (17.7)11 (19.0)10 (14.9)0.81
Child-Pugh Ab163 (55.3)85 (50.0)49 (84.5)29 (43.3)<0.0001
Child-Pugh Bb85 (28.8)52 (30.6)8 (13.8)25 (37.3)
Child-Pugh Cb47 (15.9)33 (19.4)1 (1.7)13 (19.4)
AFP level (ng/mL)a4 (3;9)4 (3;10)4 (3.7.3)4 (3;7)0.66
Albumin (g/dL)b36.7 (31.5;41.8)37 (31.0;42.2)39.5 (34.8;42.4)35.1 (31.6;39.3)0.022
Total bilirubin (mg/dL)a1.2 (0.64;2.6)1.4 (0.64; 2.8)0.9 (0.61;1.6)1.5 (0.73;3.8)0.005
AST (>2 ULN)a91/266 (34.2)53/148 (35.8)19/53 (35.8)19/65 (29.2)0.64
ALT (>2 ULN)a33/266 (12.4)18/148 (12.2)8/53 (15.1)7/65 (10.8)0.77
ALP(>2 ULN)a48/261 (18.4)25/144 (17.4)10/52 (19.2)13/65 (20.0)0.89
GGT (>2 ULN)a188/253 (74.3)103/143 (72.5)34/47 (72.3)51/64 (79.7)0.54
Platelet count (× 103/mm)a125.5 (84.8;171.2)126 (83;171)119 (89.5;170.5)133 (84.3;168.8)0.92
Prothrombin timeb67 (53;80)65 (49.3;83.0)70 (60.8;79.3)68 (56.5;78.0)0.28
Creatinine (μmol/L)b79 (66;95)77 (64.3;92.0)79 (71;93)89 (70;107.5)0.002
Serum endocan (ng/mL)a4.6 (2.9;7.0)4.5 (2.3;6.6)4.2 (3.1;6.7)5.8 (3.5;7.9)0.018
Serum syndecan-1 (ng/ml)a50.1 (26.4;103.2)38.5 (23.9;84.0)42.5 (25.7;58.0)145.1 (55.5;327.5)<0.0001
Serum glypican-3 (ng/ml)a2.5 (1.1;5.8)2.5 (1.2;6.7)1.4 (0.5;2.5)4.2 (2;9.1)<0.0001
Serum VEGF (pg/mL)a243 (133;448)222.5 (110.8;368.8)254 (143.2;400.8)370 (173;660)0.0016
Tumor portal thrombosisb0 (0)24/55 (43.6)<0.0001
Tumor number > 1b9/56 (16.1)35/60 (58.3)<0.0001
Tumor size (mm)a27.5 (20; 4)60 (30;80)<0.0001
BCLC stage 0b13 (22.4)0 (0)<0.0001
BCLC stage Ab45 (77.6)0 (0)<0.0001
BCLC stage Bb0 (0)33 (49.2)<0.0001
BCLC stage Cb0 (0)15 (22.4)<0.0001
BCLC stage Db0 (0)19 (28.4)<0.0001

NOTE: The Fisher exact or χ2 test was used for binary variables and the Wilcoxon or Kruskal–Wallis test for continuous variables.

Abbreviations: ALT, alanine aminotransferase; ALP, alkaline phosphatase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; GGT, gamma-glutamyl transferase; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; ULN: upper limit of normal.

  • aMedian (first and third quartiles).

  • bNumber (%) of patients.