Table 1.

Comprehensive summary of different classes of BE/EAC biomarkers

Biomarker classRef.
Tissue biomarkers
 Genomic abnormalities (ploidy and LOH)(47–51)
 DNA methylationRefer to Table 2
 SNPs/expression array studiesRefer to Table 3
Inflammatory markers
 COX-2(69, 72–77)
 NF-κB(78–81)
 Cytokines(67, 79, 81–86)
 MMPs(87–93)
 Cell-cycle abnormalities(94, 95, 101)
 miRNARefer to Table 4
 Glycosylation changes(121, 123–125)
Circulatory biomarkers
 DNA methylation changes(130–132)
 Glycan alterations(135–138)
 Metabolic profiling(142–145)