Table 4.

Self-reported heartburn frequency, medication history, and laryngopharyngeal carcinoma risk stratified by heavy smoking and/or heavy drinking status

ncases/ncontrolORa (95% CI)
Heartburn frequency
Neither a heavy smokerb nor heavy drinkerc
 Never had heartburn66/225Reference
 Rare78/1991.02 (0.64–1.63)
 Often/extreme39/801.78 (1.00–3.16)
Heavy smokerb and/or heavy drinkercPinteraction = 0.07
 Never had heartburn129/141Reference
 Rare139/1800.96 (0.65–1.43)
 Often/extreme71/920.84 (0.52–1.38)
Heartburn medication historydf
Neither a heavy smokerb nor heavy drinkerc
 Heartburn—never took medicine44/129Reference
 Heartburn—antacids only29/1460.60 (0.28–1.27)
 Heartburn—PPI and/or histamine H2 receptor antagonist60/1131.21 (0.55–2.63)
Heavy smokerb and/or heavy drinkercPinteraction = 0.92
 Heartburn—never took medicine82/112Reference
 Heartburn—antacids only87/1660.65 (0.36–1.17)
 Heartburn—PPI and/or histamine H2 receptor antagonist107/1291.65 (0.85–3.21)

NOTE: Significant results are shown in bold type.

Abbreviation: PPI, proton pump inhibitor.

  • aAdjusted for age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol consumption, HPV16 exposure, education, and BMI.

  • bHeavy smoker was defined as the II and III tertiles of pack-years among smokers (>18.3 pack-years).

  • cHeavy drinker was defined as consumption of more than 14 alcoholic drinks per week.

  • dRestricted to subjects reporting ever having heartburn.

  • eAdditionally adjusted for heartburn frequency.

  • fSubjects reporting treatment of heartburn solely with other medications or home remedies only were excluded from the analysis due to low frequency of occurrence.