Table 3.

Association of self-reported heartburn frequency and medication history with laryngopharyngeal carcinoma, overall and by primary tumor site

All LPSCCPharyngealLaryngeal
ncases/ncontrolORa (95% CI)ncases/ncontrolORa (95% CI)ncases/ncontrolORa (95% CI)
Heartburn frequencyb
 Never had heartburn195/366Reference147/366Reference48/366Reference
 Rare217/3791.01 (0.75–1.36)171/3791.03 (0.74–1.44)46/3790.83 (0.51–1.34)
 Often/extreme110/1721.16 (0.80–1.68)88/1721.23 (0.82–1.85)22/1720.84 (0.45–1.55)
Heartburn medication historyc,d
 Never took medicine126/241Reference91/241Reference35/241Reference
 Antacids only116/3120.59 (0.38–0.93)87/3120.71 (0.43–1.16)29/3120.33 (0.14–0.79)
 PPI and/or histamine H2 receptor antagonist167/2421.38 (0.85–2.26)121/2421.34 (0.77–2.34)46/2421.97 (0.88–4.78)
 Other medications/home remedies20/560.94 (0.42–2.09)17/561.41 (0.61–3.26)3/56

NOTE: Significant results are shown in bold type.

Abbreviation: PPI, proton pump inhibitor.

  • aAdjusted for age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol consumption, HPV16 exposure (L1 serology), education, and BMI.

  • bTwo cases (1 pharyngeal, 1 laryngeal) and 8 controls were excluded from the models due to missing data for race, alcohol consumption, or education.

  • cRestricted to subjects reporting ever having heartburn; 2 cases (1 pharyngeal, 1 laryngeal) and 8 controls were excluded due to missing data for race, alcohol consumption, or education.

  • dAdditionally adjusted for heartburn frequency.