Table 4.

Adjusted ORs and 95% CIs for prostate cancer in relation to diabetes mellitus status, by risk group

Low-risk prostate cancerIntermediate-risk prostate cancerHigh-risk/metastatic prostate cancera
No prostate cancerORb (95% CI)ORb (95% CI)ORb (95% CI)
Diabetes
 No212,25511,533Ref.12,850Ref.17,498Ref.
 Yes9,2403010.71 (0.64–0.80)4240.76 (0.69–0.84)7130.86 (0.80–0.93)
Duration
 No diabetes212,25511,533Ref.12,850Ref.17,498Ref.
 1–4 y2,513910.74 (0.60–0.91)1450.94 (0.8–1.11)1830.87 (0.75–1.00)
 5–9 y2,537880.73 (0.59–0.90)1200.78 (0.65–0.94)2070.93 (0.81–1.07)
 10–19 y2,784900.74 (0.60–0.91)1180.70 (0.59–0.84)2160.85 (0.74–0.97)
 20+ y1,406320.56 (0.39–0.79)410.49 (0.36–0.67)1070.77 (0.64–0.93)
Therapy
 No diabetes212,25511,533Ref.12,850Ref.17,498Ref.
 Diet only2,055700.78 (0.61–0.98)1160.93 (0.77–1.12)1650.88 (0.75–1.02)
 OHAc3,7131280.75 (0.63–0.89)1640.73 (0.63–0.86)2830.86 (0.77–0.97)
 OHA and insulin1,464470.66 (0.50–0.89)690.78 (0.62–0.99)1110.88 (0.73–1.07)
 Insulin1,948560.65 (0.49–0.84)720.60 (0.48–0.76)1480.82 (0.69–0.96)
BMI
 No diabetes212,25511,533Ref.12,850Ref.17,498Ref.
 Diabetes, BMI < 251,836630.88 (0.68–1.12)890.81 (0.66–1.00)1600.88 (0.75–1.03)
 Diabetes, BMI 25–303,9751390.75 (0.64–0.89)1920.79 (0.68–0.91)3230.90 (0.81–1.01)
 Diabetes, 30+2,490750.59 (0.47–0.74)1060.70 (0.58–0.85)1580.80 (0.68–0.94)
Age at diabetes mellitus onset
 No diabetes212,25511,533Ref.12,850Ref.17,498Ref.
 <501,224370.49 (0.35–0.68)440.59 (0.44–0.8)690.81 (0.64–1.03)
 50–592,5461200.79 (0.66–0.95)990.63 (0.52–0.77)1570.85 (0.73–1.00)
 60–693,1851010.71 (0.58–0.86)1580.79 (0.68–0.93)2470.87 (0.77–0.99)
 70–791,918390.82 (0.60–1.13)1040.94 (0.77–1.14)1850.83 (0.72–0.96)
 80+36740.83 (0.31–2.22)191.12 (0.71–1.76)551.05 (0.8–1.37)
HbA1c (quintile)
 No diabetes212,25511,533Ref.12,850Ref.17,498Ref.
 3.5–5.21,866640.76 (0.59–0.97)1090.96 (0.79–1.16)1450.87 (0.74–1.03)
 5.2–5.81,584500.69 (0.52–0.91)700.72 (0.57–0.91)1420.99 (0.84–1.17)
 5.8–6.41,986630.71 (0.55–0.91)980.81 (0.66–0.99)1390.78 (0.66–0.92)
 6.4–7.11,668580.76 (0.58–0.98)660.66 (0.52–0.84)1330.89 (0.75–1.06)
 7.1–14.91,936630.70 (0.55–0.90)720.63 (0.5–0.79)1390.81 (0.69–0.96)
  • aIncludes high-risk, regionally, and distant metastatic disease.

  • bAdjusted for SES, civil status, comorbidity, age at prostate cancer diagnosis, and diabetes prevalence in county of residence.

  • cOral hypoglycemic agents.