Table 1.

Urinary excretion of toxic substance biomarkersa

Water pipeCigarette
Toxic substanceBiomarkerStudy day 3Study day 4AverageStudy day 3Study Day 4AverageP
NNKNNAL226 (136–373)210 (137–319)220 (140349)387 (206–726)446 (261–767)424 (242742)<0.01
(TSNA)(pmoL/24 h)328 (119–447)226 (110–336)247 (127374)707 (151–858)836 (215–1051)770 (176946)
Naphthalene2-Naph3,844 (2,649–5,574)3,174 (2,234–4,524)3,556 (2,5235,043)5696 (3764–8642)5,968 (4,140–8,646)5,944 (4,1148,640)<0.01
(PAH)(pmoL/24 h)3,383 (2,270–5,653)3,513 (2,094–5,607)3,354 (2,1005,453)8507 (3009–11516)7,320 (3,543–10,863)8,015 (3,15811,173)
Fluorene1-Fluor96 (52–178)90 (52–158)94 (53167)262 (162–426)293 (191–450)284 (185437)<0.01
(PAH)(pmoL/24 h)235 (39–273)143 (44–187)194 (41235)251 (187- 439)360 (189–549)327 (180507)
Fluorene2-Fluor65 (29–146)135 (59–309)118 (55253)347 (220–545)364 (230–580)360 (230564)0.02
(PAH)(pmol/24 h)195 (18–212)370 (36–406)366 (34400)463 (211–674)523 (185–708)513 (222735)
Fluorene3-Fluor54 (36–82)49 (35–68)52 (3775)177 (102–305)196 (117–329)192 (115317)<0.01
(PAH)(pmoL/24 h)65 (31–96)40 (33–72.6)45 (3277)249 (92–341)292 (113–404)292 (101393)
PhenanthreneSum of Phen361 (241–537)335 (242–462)351 (245–503)261 (224–304)316 (243–411)296 (249–353)0.26
(PAH)(pmoL/24 h)331 (201–533)300 (203–503)326 (200–526)89 (215–304)136 (250–387)104 (239–342)
Pyrene1-HP117 (85–160)109 (83–144)115 (87150)74 (60–91)85 (64–113)81 (66101)0.01
(PAH)(pmoL/24 h)127 (80–206)109 (70–179)108 (87194)40 (59–99)52 (61–113)48 (61109)
Ethylene OxideHEMA3.47 (2.454.91)5.97 (3.649.8)<0.01
(VOC)(μg/24 h)2.39 (2.484.88)8.58 (2.9711.55)
AcrylonitrileCNEMA14.3 (8.324.6)70.9 (45.4110.9)<0.01
(VOC)(μg/24 h)18.7 (8.827.4)90.1 (43133.1)
Acrolein3-HPMA418.6 (327.2535.7)601.6 (450.8802.8)0.01
(VOC)(μg/24 h)152.6 (337.6490.2)388.6 (425.3814)
Propylene Oxide2-HPMA59.4 (34.9101)94.9 (55.4162.7)0.04
(VOC)(μg/24 h)80.3 (28.7109)148.1 (50.2198.2)
1,3-ButadieneMHBMA0.39 (0.30.52)1.3 (1.021.65)<0.01
(VOC)(μg/24 h)0.28 (0.270.55)0.76 (0.961.72)
AcrylamideAAMA105.8 (74.3–150.5)132.7 (99.5–177)0.20
(VOC)(μg/24 h)44.1 (77.7–121.8)84.4 (96.8–181.2)
BenzenePMA1.73 (0.763.93)0.695 (0.391.25)0.03
(VOC)(μg/24 h)5.67 (0.496.16)0.75 (0.351.09)

NOTE: Significant differences are in bold. Mercapturic acid metabolites of volatile organic chemicals were measured on day 4 only, so there are no day 3 or average data for these analytes.

Abbreviations: AAMA, 2-carbamoylethylmercapturic acid; CNEMA, 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid; 1-Fluor, 1-hydroxyfluorene; 2-Fluor, 2-hydroxyfluorene; 3-Fluor, 3-hydroxyfluorene; HEMA, 2-hydroxyethylmercapturic acid; 1-HP, 1-hydroxypyrene; 2-HPMA, 2-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid; 3-HPMA, 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid; MHBMA, 2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl-mercapturic acid or isomer(s); 2-Naph, 2-naphthol; PMA, phenylmercapturic acid; Sum of Phen, sum of 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxyphenanthrenes.

  • aAll values are presented in this format: geometric mean (95% confidence interval of geometric mean) on the top line and median (interquartile interval) on the bottom line.