Table 1.

The 2007 WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention and adherence score assignment among cancer survivors in the IWHS

WCRF/AICR recommendationIWHS 2004 dataOperationalizationScoren%
1.Be as lean as possible without becoming underweight.BMI18.5–<25175637.5
2.Be physically active, for at least 30 minutes every day.Physical activity levelHigh144722.2
3.(1) Limit consumption of energy-dense foods.(1) Not includeda
(2) Avoid sugary drinks.(2) High sugar beverage intake0 g/d11376.8
<250 g/d0.592545.9
≥250 g/d095547.3
4.Eat more of a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes such as beans.(1) Total fruit and vegetable intake frequency≥5 servings/d11,23961.4
3–<5 servings/d0.557528.5
<3 servings/d020310.1
(2) Daily dietary fiber intake≥25 g/d164231.8
12.5–<25 g/d0.51,10955.0
<12.5 g/d026613.2
5.Limit consumption of red meats (such as beef, pork, and lamb) and avoid processed meats.Daily red meat and processed meat intake (RP) and processed meat intake (P)<500 g/d RP and 3 g/d P138218.9
<500 g/d RP and 3–<50 g/d P0.51,28663.8
≥500 g/d RP or ≥50 g/d P034917.3
6.Limit alcoholic drinks to 2 for men and 1 for women a day, if consumed at all.Daily alcohol intake≤10 g/d11,86392.4
>10–20 g/d0.5984.8
>20 g/d0562.8
7.Limit consumption of salty foods and foods processed with salt.Daily sodium intake≤1,500 mg/d155027.3
>1,500–2,400 mg/d0.595947.5
>2,400 mg/d050825.2
8.Do not use supplements to protect against cancer.Not includeda
9.It is best for mothers to breastfeed exclusively for up to 6 months.Not applicable for this analysis
10.Cancer survivors should follow the recommendations for cancer prevention (after treatment).
  • Abbreviations: WCRF, World Cancer Research Fund; AICR, American Institution for Cancer Research; IWHS, Iowa Women's Health Study.

  • aSufficient information not available.