Table 4.

Colorectal cancer incidence or mortality associated with asthma and hay fever status, by age, sex, and smoking status in CPS-I, the CPS-II Mortality Cohort, and the CPS-II Nutrition Cohort

CPS-I Mortality, 1959–72CPS-II Mortality Cohort Mortality, 1982–2008CPS-II Nutrition Cohort, Incidence, 1992–2007
DeathsPerson-yearsRR (95% CI)aDeathsPerson-yearsRR (95% CI)aCasesPerson-yearsRR (95% CI)b
Age < 70 years
 No asthma or hay fever2,7518,389,6931.00 (ref)3,42711,599,0571.00 (ref)1,062904,7871.00 (ref)
 Asthma only68236,8650.83 (0.65–1.05)100316,2441.08 (0.89–1.32)2523,2060.94 (0.63–1.40)
 Hay fever only247887,4070.93 (0.81–1.06)3301,461,6520.88 (0.78–0.98)108123,1100.85 (0.69–1.03)
 Hay fever and asthma64242,9310.87 (0.68–1.12)57338,2160.65 (0.50–0.85)2630,1320.83 (0.56–1.22)
Age ≥ 70 years
 No asthma or hay fever2,2141,474,9211.00 (ref)8,5498,487,9351.00 (ref)1,861896,6421.00 (ref)
 Asthma only8650,5901.12 (0.90–1.39)202206,4140.98 (0.85–1.12)4021,0220.92 (0.67–1.25)
 Hay fever only170111,3421.04 (0.89–1.22)748892,9660.94 (0.87–1.01)199104,7671.02 (0.89–1.19)
 Hay fever and asthma4432,1860.94 (0.69–1.26)145191,3510.86 (0.73–1.01)4424,3930.95 (0.71–1.28)
Pinteractionc0.830.100.89
Men
 No asthma or hay fever2,3744,233,1901.00 (ref)6,0748,432,7771.00 (ref)1,627816,5781.00 (ref)
 Asthma only93135,8751.11 (0.90–1.36)150222,2981.00 (0.85–1.17)3620,7710.92 (0.66–1.28)
 Hay fever only206388,6571.04 (0.90–1.20)476868,1360.90 (0.82–0.99)14894,7570.93 (0.79–1.11)
 Hay fever and asthma44106,9570.81 (0.60–1.09)89200,3980.76 (0.62–0.94)3522,6330.92 (0.66–1.28)
Women
 No asthma or hay fever2,5915,631,4251.00 (ref)5,90211,654,2141.00 (ref)1,296984,8511.00 (ref)
 Asthma only61151,5800.82 (0.63–1.05)152300,3611.02 (0.87–1.20)2923,4570.94 (0.65–1.37)
 Hay fever only211610,0930.91 (0.79–1.05)6021,486,4820.94 (0.86–1.02)159133,1200.99 (0.84–1.17)
 Hay fever and asthma64168,1590.97 (0.76–1.25)113329,1690.82 (0.68–0.98)3531,8930.90 (0.64–1.26)
Pinteractionc0.260.660.99
Never smoker
 No asthma or hay fever2,5044,580,9011.00 (ref)4,3998,364,5841.00 (ref)1,009746,1431.00 (ref)
 Asthma only67111,6390.98 (0.77–1.25)110201,5201.06 (0.87–1.28)2216,8720.98 (0.64–1.50)
 Hay fever only210497,0730.95 (0.82–1.09)4801,145,0240.95 (0.87–1.05)128109,4870.96 (0.80–1.15)
 Hay fever and asthma65133,7961.06 (0.82–1.35)93242,0000.89 (0.73–1.10)2724,5030.89 (0.60–1.30)
Former smoker
 No asthma or hay fever500914,1741.00 (ref)3,4395,411,9191.00 (ref)1,392777,1211.00 (ref)
 Asthma only1331,2050.67 (0.38–1.16)88161,6310.89 (0.72–1.10)3020,9850.82 (0.57–1.18)
 Hay fever only50107,7920.98 (0.74–1.32)306631,7970.92 (0.82–1.03)14790,7871.02 (0.86–1.21)
 Hay fever and asthma932,9480.57 (0.29–1.10)57158,6070.71 (0.55–0.92)3323,0410.91 (0.64–1.28)
Current smoker
 No asthma or hay fever1,1243,224,8211.00 (ref)2,4894,098,2681.00 (ref)274144,2251.00 (ref)
 Asthma only47109,3561.09 (0.82–1.46)61102,5131.10 (0.85–1.42)83,1911.33 (0.66–2.70)
 Hay fever only86285,3090.97 (0.78–1.21)156345,6550.86 (0.73–1.01)1912,4810.88 (0.55–1.41)
 Hay fever and asthma2278,3650.91 (0.60–1.39)3177,1240.79 (0.56–1.13)13,0440.21 (0.03–1.47)
Pinteractionc0.170.420.15
  • aRR for colorectal cancer mortality adjusted for age, sex, race, education, BMI, physical activity, smoking, and aspirin use.

  • bRR for incident colorectal cancer, adjusted for age, sex, race, education, BMI, physical activity, smoking, aspirin use, and history of colorectal endoscopy.

  • cInteraction with having both hay fever and asthma compared with neither, as described in Materials and Methods.