Table 3.

Ratio (95% CI) of geometric mean of biomarkers by cigarette type and by race/ethnicitya

NSerum cotinineBlood cadmiumBlood leadUrine NNALb
 Nonmenthol2,1481.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Menthol5081.00 (0.91–1.10)1.11 (1.041.19)0.94 (0.88–1.00)0.79 (0.56–1.10)
 Nonmenthol3551.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Menthol7891.11 (0.98–1.27)1.04 (0.95–1.14)1.08 (1.001.17)0.96 (0.80–1.14)
 Non-menthol7071.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Menthol961.14 (0.81–1.60)1.05 (0.92–1.18)0.92 (0.79–1.06)2.33 (1.403.87)

NOTE: Statistically significant associations at two-sided alpha 0.05 are shown in bold.

  • aAdjusted for age, sex, education, BMI, and cigarettes smoked per day.

  • bOnly available in NHANES 2007–2010 (N = 942 White, 414 African-Americans, 251 Mexican-Americans) and further adjusted for urine creatinine.

  • cPinteraction by cigarette type and race/ethnicity was estimated using indicator variables that combined the participants' race/ethnicity with their cigarette type (menthol or nonmenthol) and combined using the Wald test.