Table 2.

Ratio (95% CI) of geometric mean of biomarkers by cigarette type

NModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
Serum cotinine
 Nonmenthol3,2101.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Menthol1,3931.12 (1.031.22)1.24 (1.141.34)1.03 (0.95–1.11)
Blood cadmium
 Nonmenthol3,2101.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Menthol1,3931.09 (1.031.15)1.15 (1.091.20)1.10 (1.051.15)1.10 (1.041.16)
Blood lead
 Nonmenthol3,2101.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Menthol1,3931.02 (0.98–1.07)1.03 (0.98–1.08)1.02 (0.97–1.07)0.95 (0.90–1.01)
Urine NNALa
 Non-menthol1,1181.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Menthol4890.85 (0.67–1.08)0.92 (0.72–1.17)0.76 (0.620.92)0.81 (0.65–1.01)

NOTE: Model 1 adjusted for age, sex, education, and BMI.

Model 2 further adjusted for cigarettes smoked per day.

Model 3 further adjusted for serum cotinine (for blood cadmium, blood lead, and urine NNAL).

Model 4 further adjusted for race/ethnicity.

Statistically significant associations at two-sided alpha 0.05 are shown in bold.

  • aOnly available in NHANES 2007–2010 (N = 1,607) and further adjusted for urine creatinine.