Table 3.

Age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted HR of the association between vegetarian status and specific dietary patterns and overall cancer incidence

Dietary patterns
Non-vegetarianVegetarianaLacto-vegetarianPesco-vegetarianSemi-vegetarianVegan
Both males and females
 Person at-risk33,73635,38419,7356,8463,8814,922
 Number of events1,4131,526878276182190
 Person-years139,596.9514,6381.7280,858.8429,128.4015,830.3920,564.08
 HRb (95% CI)Reference0.91 (0.85–0.98)0.94 (0.86–1.02)0.84 (0.74–0.96)1.001 (0.86–1.17)0.83 (0.71–0.97)
 HRc (95% CI)Reference0.92 (0.85–1.00)0.95 (0.86–1.04)0.89 (0.77–1.03)0.98 (0.83–1.18)0.86 (0.73–1.00)
 HRd (95% CI)Reference0.92 (0.85–0.99)0.93 (0.85–1.02)0.88 (0.77–1.01)0.98 (0.82–1.17)0.84 (0.72–0.99)
 Pe0.030.140.060.810.03
Males
 Person at-risk11,81312,6337,2752,3011,2261,831
 Number of events5926433801147277
 Person-years47,990.3851,141.1429,317.079,480.374,798.897,544.81
 HRb (95% CI)Reference0.89 (0.79–0.99)0.90 (0.79–1.03)0.82 (0.67–1.00)1.10 (0.87–1.41)0.77 (0.61–0.97)
 HRf (95% CI)Reference0.92 (0.81–1.03)0.92 (0.80–1.06)0.88 (0.71–1.09)1.11 (0.85–1.45)0.81 (0.64–1.02)
 HRg (95% CI)Reference0.90 (0.80–1.01)0.91 (0.79–1.05)0.87 (0.70–1.07)1.09 (0.83–1.43)0.79 (0.62–1.00)
 Pe0.080.190.190.510.05
Females
 Person at-risk219232275112460454526553091
 Number of Events821883498162110113
 Person-Years91606.5795240.5851541.7719648.0311031.5013019.27
 HRb (95%CI)Reference0.93 (0.84–1.02)0.96 (0.86–1.07)0.85 (0.72–1.19)0.98 (0.80–1.19)0.88 (0.72–1.07)
 HRc (95%CI)Reference0.93 (0.84–1.03)0.96 (0.85–1.08)0.90 (0.74–1.09)0.92 (0.73–1.16)0.91 (0.75–1.11)
 HRd (95%CI)Reference0.92 (0.83–1.02)0.95 (0.84–1.07)0.94 (0.77–1.13)0.92 (0.73–1.16)0.93 (0.77–1.14)
p-valuee0.110.360.500.470.50
  • aVegetarian group includes lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and vegan.

  • bHR adjusted by age.

  • cHR adjusted by race, family history of cancer, BMI, education, smoking, alcohol, age at menarche, pregnancies, breastfeeding, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, and menopause status.

  • dHR adjusted by race, family history of cancer, education, smoking, alcohol, age at menarche, pregnancies, breastfeeding, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, and menopause status.

  • eP value for the multivariate HR without BMI.

  • fHR adjusted by race, family history of cancer, BMI, education, smoking, and alcohol.

  • gHR adjusted by race, family history, education, smoking, and alcohol.