Table 5.

ORs and 95% CIs for smokinga and environmental exposuresb and lung cancer risk

AllcCase (N = 500)Control (N = 500)OR (95% CI)
Without exposure
 Never smoker61 (12.20)111 (22.20)1.00 (Referent)
 Light smokers37 (7.40)63 (12.60)1.07 (0.64–1.78)
 Moderate smokers55 (11.00)39 (7.80)2.60 (1.55–4.35)
 Heavy smokers90 (18.00)56 (11.20)3.05 (1.82–4.85)
Ptrend < 0.001
With exposure
 Never smoker30 (6.00)60 (12.00)0.93 (0.54–1.60)
 Light smokers42 (8.40)46 (9.20)1.78 (1.05–3.02)
 Moderate smokers62 (12.40)47 (9.40)2.56 (1.55–4.21)
 Heavy smokers123 (24.60)78 (15.60)3.15 (2.03–4.89)
Ptrend < 0.001
MalesdCase (N = 245)Control (N = 246)OR (95%CI)
Without exposure
 Never smoker21 (8.57)34 (13.82)1.00 (Referent)
 Light smokers10 (4.08)22 (8.94)0.74 (0.29–1.86)
 Moderate smokers20 (8.16)14 (5.69)2.31 (0.96–5.53)
 Heavy smokers36 (14.69)31 (12.60)1.86 (0.90–3.88)
Ptrend = 0.081
With exposure
 Never smoker12 (4.90)28 (11.38)0.70 (0.29–1.66)
 Light smokers23 (9.39)31 (12.60)1.20 (0.56–2.58)
 Moderate smokers33 (13.47)32 (13.01)1.67 (0.80–3.46)
 Heavy smokers90 (36.73)54 (21.95)2.68 (1.41–5.11)
Ptrend < 0.001
FemalesdCase (N = 255)Control (N = 254)OR (95% CI)
Without exposure
 Never smoker40 (15.69)77 (30.31)1.00 (Referent)
 Light smokers27 (10.59)41 (16.14)1.26 (0.68–2.35)
 Moderate smokers35 (13.73)25 (9.84)2.68 (1.41–5.09)
 Heavy smokers54 (21.18)25 (9.84)4.25 (2.30–7.88)
Ptrend < 0.001
With exposure
 Never smoker18 (7.06)32 (12.60)1.07 (0.53–2.14)
 Light smokers19 (7.45)15 (5.91)2.44 (0.12–5.30)
 Moderate smokers29 (11.37)15 (5.91)3.71 (1.78–7.70)
 Heavy smokers33 (12.94)24 (9.45)2.67 (1.39–5.11)
Ptrend = 0.027
  • aSmoking intensity, light smokers (0 < pack-years ≤ 20), moderate smokers (20 < pack-years ≤ 40), heavy smokers (40 < pack-years).

  • bSelf-reported exposure to at least 1 of 7 environmental exposures (i.e., asbestos, fiberglass, wood dust, solvents, paints, exhaust, and bleach.

  • cModel adjusted by age and gender.

  • dModel adjusted by age.