Table 4.

Ratio (95% CI) of geometric mean of biomarkers by race/ethnicity

NModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
Serum cotinine
 White2,6561.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 African-American1,1441.16 (1.081.24)1.55 (1.441.68)1.53 (1.411.66)
 Mexican-American8030.28 (0.240.33)0.42 (0.360.50)0.43 (0.360.50)
Blood cadmium
 White2,6561.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 African-American1,1440.99 (0.94–1.04)1.16 (1.111.23)1.07 (1.021.11)1.01 (0.96–1.07)
 Mexican-American8030.69 (0.640.74)0.87 (0.810.93)1.04 (0.96–1.12)1.04 (0.97–1.12)
Blood lead
 White2,6561.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 African-American1,1441.25 (1.191.30)1.30 (1.241.36)1.28 (1.221.34)1.31 (1.241.39)
 Mexican-American8031.12 (1.051.20)1.19 (1.111.27)1.22 (1.141.31)1.22 (1.141.31)
Urine NNALa
 White9421.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 African-American4140.69 (0.570.83)1.04 (0.90–1.20)0.72 (0.640.80)0.78 (0.670.90)
 Mexican-American2510.53 (0.360.79)0.83 (0.64–1.08)1.29 (1.131.47)1.28 (1.121.46)

NOTE: Model 1 adjusted for age, sex, education, and BMI.

Model 2 further adjusted for cigarettes smoked per day.

Model 3 further adjusted for serum cotinine (for blood cadmium, blood lead, and urine NNAL).

Model 4 further adjusted for cigarette type (nonmenthol/menthol).

Statistically significant associations at two-sided alpha 0.05 are shown in bold.

  • aOnly available in NHANES 2007–2010 (N = 1,607) and further adjusted for urine creatinine.