Table 4.

Age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted HR of anatomic cancer sites associated with vegetarian status and specific dietary patterns

VariablesPerson at-riskNo. of eventsPerson-yearsHRa (95% CI)HRb,c (95% CI)HRd (95% CI)Pe
GIT
 Non-vegetarian33,736260142,083.071.001.001.00
 Vegetarian35,384235149,249.070.72 (0.61–0.86)0.76 (0.63–0.90)0.77 (0.63–0.93)0.002
 Lacto-vegetarian19,73513182,469.720.72 (0.58–0.89)0.75 (0.60–0.93)0.76 (0.61–0.94)0.009
 Pesco-vegetarian6,8464629,672.610.73 (0.53–1.00)0.78 (0.56–1.07)0.79 (0.57–1.09)0.13
 Semi-vegetarian3,8812316,208.050.64 (0.42–0.99)0.73 (0.48–1.13)0.74 (0.48–1.14)0.16
 Vegan4,9223520,898.690.81 (0.57–1.15)0.78 (0.54–1.13)0.80 (0.55–1.17)0.19
RT
 Non-vegetarian33,73698142,366.021.001.001.00
 Vegetarian35,38472149,517.290.59 (0.43–0.80)0.77 (0.55–1.06)0.75 (0.54–1.04)0.11
 Lacto-vegetarian19,7354682,630.990.67 (0.47–0.96)0.91 (0.63–1.33)0.85 (0.61–1.30)0.65
 Pesco-vegetarian6,8461029,719.820.42 (0.22–0.81)0.53 (0.28–1.03)0.52 (0.27–1.00)0.06
 Semi-vegetarian3,881816,218.930.60 (0.29–1.23)0.73 (0.37–1.47)0.72 (0.34–1.53)0.38
 Vegan4,922820,947.550.49 (0.24–1.00)0.62 (0.30–1.28)0.59 (0.28–1.23)0.20
UT
 Non-vegetarian33,73679142,366.401.001.001.00
 Vegetarian35,384115149,379.291.16 (0.87–1.55)1.17 (0.87–1.57)1.21 (0.89–1.65)0.30
 Lacto-vegetarian19,7356082,555.481.07 (0.77–1.51)1.08 (0.76–1.54)1.13 (0.79–1.61)0.66
 Pesco-vegetarian6,8461729,704.930.88 (0.52–1.49)0.88 (0.51–1.52)0.93 (0.54–1.60)0.65
 Semi-vegetarian3,8811816,205.681.66 (0.99–2.77)1.56 (0.93–2.61)1.59 (0.91–2.78)0.09
 Vegan4,9222020913.201.51 (0.92–2.46)1.57 (0.96–2.57)1.73 (1.05–2.84)0.07
MC
 Non-vegetarian11,81326448588.341.001.001.00
 Vegetarian12,63328951797.250.93 (0.78–1.10)0.93 (0.42–2.06)0.94 (0.42–2.07)0.86
 Lacto-vegetarian7,27517129716.850.61 (0.78–1.15)0.94 (0.77–1.15)0.95 (0.66–1.25)0.56
 Pesco-vegetarian2,301549589.940.91 (0.68–1.22)0.91 (0.66–1.25)0.91 (0.66–1.26).56
 Semi-vegetarian1,226304875.191.05 (0.72–1.53)1.11 (0.75–1.64)1.12 (0.76–1.65).59
 Vegan1,831347615.270.78 (0.54–1.11)0.81 (0.57–1.16)0.81 (0.57–1.17).24
FC
 Non-vegetarian21,92338792416.541.001.001.00
 Vegetarian2275141496061.370.97 (0.84–1.11)0.93 (0.81–1.07)0.97 (0.84–1.13)0.33
 Lacto-vegetarian1246024551972.441.05 (0.90–1.24)1.01 (0.85–1.19)1.04 (0.87–1.25)0.92
 Pesco-vegetarian45457419796.820.85 (0.67–1.09)0.88 (0.69–1.12)0.92 (0.71–1.19)0.29
 Semi-vegetarian26555611120.571.12 (0.85–1.48)1.02 (0.74–1.40)1.03 (0.75–1.42)0.89
 Vegan30913913171.540.66 (0.48–0.92)0.66 (0.47–0.92)0.71 (0.50–1.01)0.01

Abbreviations: FC, all female cancer (female breast, vulva, vagina, cervix uteri, corpus uteri, endometrial, uterus, and ovary); GIT, cancer of the gastrointestinal tract (esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, liver and bile ducts, gallbladder, biliary tract, and pancreas); MC, all male cancer (prostate, penis, and testis); RT, cancer of the respiratory tract and intrathoracic organs (nasal cavity, middle ear, larynx, trachea, bronchus, lung, heart, mediastinum, and pleura); UT, cancer of the urinary tract (renal pelvis, ureter, kidney, and bladder).

  • aHR adjusted by age.

  • bMultivariate HR model adjusted by race, family history of cancer, education, smoking, alcohol, age at menarche, pregnancies, breastfeeding, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, and menopause status. This multivariate HR is applicable for all anatomic cancer sites except male-specific cancers.

  • cMultivariate HR model adjusted by race, family history of cancer, education, smoking, and alcohol. This multivariate HR is applicable only for male-specific cancers.

  • dMultivariate HR including BMI.

  • eP value for the multivariate HR without BMI.