Table 4.

RRs and 95% CIs for quintiles of intake of meat, its subtypes, fish, and heme iron according to anatomic location of SCC of the UADT in EPIC

RR (95% CI)a
Food itemIncrementModelbOral cavity/pharynx (325 cases)Esophagus (151 cases)Larynx (206 cases)
Total meatPer 20 g/1,000 kcalsObserved1.13 (1.02–1.24)1.24 (1.09–1.41)0.91 (0.79–1.04)
Calibrated1.27 (1.06–1.53)1.22 (0.97–1.52)0.88 (0.66–1.67)
Red meatPer 10 g/1,000 kcalsObserved1.04 (0.96–1.12)1.09 (0.99–1.20)0.92 (0.82–1.02)
Calibrated1.07 (0.92–1.25)1.03 (0.86–1.23)0.84 (0.67–1.06)
PoultryPer 5 g/1,000 kcalsObserved1.01 (0.95–1.08)0.86 (0.76–0.98)0.92 (0.83–1.01)
Calibrated1.12 (0.98–1.27)0.86 (0.66–1.13)0.87 (0.69–1.10)
Processed meatPer 10 g/1,000 kcalsObserved1.09 (1.00–1.19)1.31 (1.18–1.46)1.03 (0.91–1.16)
Calibrated1.17 (0.97–1.42)1.42 (1.13–1.78)1.09 (0.84–1.41)
FishPer 10 g/1,000 kcalsObserved0.99 (0.88–1.10)0.92 (0.77–1.09)0.97 (0.85–1.12)
Calibrated1.00 (0.78–1.28)0.96 (0.66–1.40)1.10 (0.83–1.46)
Heme ironPer 200 μg/1,000 kcalsObserved1.10 (0.99–1.22)1.06 (0.92–1.22)1.06 (0.92–1.21)
Calibrated1.05 (0.98–1.12)0.99 (0.90–1.10)1.09 (0.99–1.21)
  • aRRs are derived from multivariate Cox regression stratified by age at recruitment and center, and adjusted for nonconsumer status (0/1), sex, energy intake from fat and nonfat sources, education (none/primary, technical/professional, secondary school, university, not specified), smoking (lifelong nonsmoking, former smoking with quitting ≥10 years, former smoking with quitting <10 years, current smoking with <15 cigarettes/day, current smoking with 15–24, current smoking with ≥25 cigarettes/day, current smoking other than cigarettes combined with smoking with unknown quantity, and missing), alcohol consumption (g/d), drinking history (never, former, unknown), BMI (kg/m2), physical activity (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, and active), citrus and noncitrus fruits, and vegetables. Red meat, poultry, and processed meat were mutually adjusted.

  • bObserved, intake of meat/iron was estimated from the dietary questionnaire; predicted, intake of meat/iron was calibrated using data of the 24-hour diet recall of the calibration study participants.