Table 2.

Baseline characteristics of the cohort according to study-wide quintiles of total meat intake in the EPIC study (n = 348,738)

Quintiles of total meat intake (g/1000 kcals)
CharacteristicsQ1Q2Q3Q4Q5
Total meat, g/1,000 kcals (median, range)12.1 (0–27)35.0 (27–41)47.2 (41–53)59.8 (53–68)79.8 (68–332)
Men (%)27.134.137.642.057.7
Age, yrs (SD)47.0 (13.0)51.8 (10.3)52.2 (9.8)52.3 (9.3)52.2 (8.9)
Mean BMI, kg/m2 (SD)24.1 (3.8)25.5 (4.0)25.9 (4.1)26.3 (4.2)27.1 (4.3)
Energy from fat, kcal/d (mean, SD)668 (263)727 (264)741 (260)749 (262)745 (274)
Energy from nonfat, kcal/d (mean, SD)1,346 (408)1,417 (426)1,409 (414)1,388 (406)1,324 (406)
Citrus fruits, g/1,000 kcals (median, IQR)17.1 (32.8)16.8 (31.5)15.0 (29)13.3 (27.4)10.9 (27.1)
Non-citrus fruits, g/1,000 kcals (median, IQR)89.5 (92.5)74.4 (78.3)69.0 (74)63.6 (70.8)57.8 (72.4)
Vegetables, g/1,000 kcals (median, IQR)103.4 (61.8)70.4 (63.5)71.0 (61.2)73.1 (60.2)77.5 (66.3)
Fish, g/1,000 kcals (mean, SD)4.4 (12.9)8.4 (12.3)9.5 (12.7)10.4 (13.4)11.1 (14.8)
Alcohol, nonconsumer (%)9.312.611.711.713.8
Alcohol, g/d (median, IQR)a5.8 (11.5)6.9 (14.9)8.7 (17.9)10.1 (20.0)10.6 (20.4)
Lifelong nonsmokers (%)b51.843.942.640.638.1
Former smokers (%)b27.827.127.327.827.8
Current smokers (%)b19.728.129.430.933.4
University degree (%)36.822.520.218.917.2
Physically active (%)22.020.320.821.120.5

NOTE: All continuous variables are expressed either as mean (SD) or median and (IQR).

Abbreviation: IQR, interquartile range.

  • aOnly among alcohol consumers at baseline.

  • bPercentages do not add up to 100% because information on smoking status was missing for 2,508 individuals (0.7%).