Table 3.

RRs and 95% CIs of UADT cancer according to quintiles of total meat, its subtypes, fish and heme iron intake in the EPIC study (n = 348,738)

Quintiles of meat, fish, and heme iron intakeaContinuous intake
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5PtrendObservedbPredictedb
Total meat (g/1,000 kcals)12.1 (0–27)35.0 (27–41)47.2 (41–53)59.8 (53–68)79.8 (68–332)
 Total no. of cases67102140172201Per 20 g/1,000 kcals
 Model 1cRef.1.10 (0.79–1.52)1.32 (0.97–1.81)1.47 (1.08–2.01)1.62 (1.19–2.21)0.00021.15 (1.08–1.23)1.21 (1.06–1.38)
 Model 2dRef.1.05 (0.76–1.46)1.26 (0.92–1.72)1.33 (0.97–1.81)1.38 (1.01–1.89)0.011.09 (1.02–1.17)1.12 (0.98–1.28)
 Model 3eRef.1.04 (0.75–1.44)1.24 (0.91–1.70)1.32 (0.97–1.80)1.37 (1.00–1.88)0.011.09 (1.02–1.17)1.16 (1.02–1.33)
Red meat (g/1,000 kcals)1.9 (0–6)9.8 (6–13)17.5 (13–22)27.1 (22–33)42.4 (33–252)
 Total no. of cases7993128179203Per 10 g/1,000 kcals
 Model 1cRef.0.88 (0.63–1.23)1.02 (0.74–1.41)1.22 (0.88–1.68)1.21 (0.87–1.69)0.051.07 (1.02–1.13)1.06 (1.95–1.18)
 Model 2dRef.0.86 (0.62–1.20)0.95 (0.69–1.32)1.08 (0.78–1.49)1.00 (0.72–1.40)0.561.02 (0.97–1.08)0.97 (0.86–1.08)
 Model 3eRef.0.86 (0.62–1.20)0.95 (0.68–1.31)1.07 (0.77–1.48)0.98 (0.70–1.37)0.691.02 (0.97–1.08)1.00 (0.90–1.12)
Poultry (g/1,000 kcals)0 (0–2)3.5 (2–5)6.6 (5–8)10.9 (8–15)22.3 (15–324)
 Total no. of cases129165129144115Per 5 g/1,000 kcals
 Model 1cRef.0.75 (0.57–0.99)0.55 (0.41–0.74)0.58 (0.43–0.77)0.50 (0.37–0.68)0.00020.90 (0.86–0.95)0.77 (0.69–0.88)
 Model 2dRef.0.77 (0.58–1.02)0.61 (0.45–0.82)0.66 (0.49–0.89)0.62 (0.45–0.85)0.030.96 (0.91–1.00)1.01 (0.90–1.13)
 Model 3eRef.0.79 (0.60–1.05)0.64 (0.48–0.86)0.72 (0.54–0.97)0.70 (0.51–0.96)0.170.96 (0.91–1.01)1.00 (0.89–1.12)
Processed meat (g/1,000 kcals)1.5 (0–5)7.2 (5–10)12.4 (10–15)19.2 (15–24)32.8 (24–196)
 Total no. of cases73117149152191Per 10 g/1,000 kcals
 Model 1cRef.1.08 (0.79–1.47)1.24 (0.92–1.69)1.29 (0.94–1.75)1.81 (1.32–2.49)<0.00011.19 (1.12–1.26)1.19 (1.13–1.27)
 Model 2dRef.1.04 (0.77–1.42)1.15 (0.85–1.56)1.14 (0.84–1.56)1.51 (1.10–2.08)0.0021.13 (1.07–1.20)1.22 (1.07–1.38)
 Model 3eRef.1.01 (0.74–1.38)1.11 (0.81–1.50)1.09 (0.80–1.48)1.41 (1.03–1.94)0.011.13 (1.06–1.20)1.22 (1.07–1.40)
Fish (g/1,000 kcals)
 Total no. of cases0.3 (0–1.9)4.0 (1.9–6.4)8.9 (6.4–11.5)14.7 (11.5–19.1)27.5 (19.0–267)Per 10 g/1,000 kcals
 Model 1cRef.1.17 (0.85–1.62)0.98 (0.70–1.39)1.10 (0.78–1.56)0.83 (0.57–1.20)0.050.93 (0.86–1.00)0.93 (0.79–1.10)
 Model 2dRef.1.16 (0.84–1.59)1.01 (0.72–1.43)1.16 (0.82–1.64)0.87 (0.60–1.25)0.100.94 (0.87–1.02)0.95 (0.81–1.12)
 Model 3eRef.1.15 (0.84–1.58)1.02 (0.72–1.44)1.19 (0.84–1.69)0.94 (0.65–1.36)0.320.96 (0.89–1.04)1.02 (0.87–1.21)
Haem iron (μg/1,000 kcals)53 (0–116)160 (116–202)245 (202–293)351 (293–426)542 (426–460)
 Total no. of cases84116123144193Per 200 μg/1,000 kcals
 Model 1cRef.1.05 (0.79–1.41)1.05 (0.78–1.41)1.05 (0.77–1.41)1.31 (0.97–1.76)0.031.10 (1.03–1.18)1.02 (0.98–1.07)
 Model 2dRef.1.01 (0.75–1.35)1.00 (0.74–1.35)0.96 (0.71–1.29)1.18 (0.88–1.59)0.161.07 (1.00–1.15)1.02 (0.98–1.07)
 Model 3eRef.1.04 (0.78–1.39)1.03 (0.76–1.38)1.00 (0.74–1.35)1.23 (0.91–1.65)0.101.08 (1.00–1.16)1.08 (1.00–1.16)
  • aQuintiles of meat/heme iron intake were calculated based on nutrient density energy adjusted meat/heme iron intake. Intakes are medians and ranges as estimated from the dietary questionnaire.

  • bObserved, intake of meat/iron was estimated from the dietary questionnaire; predicted, intake of meat/iron was calibrated using data of the 24-hour diet recall of the calibration study participants.

  • cModel 1 is derived from Cox regression stratified by age at recruitment and center, adjusted for nonconsumer status (0/1), sex, energy intake from fat and nonfat sources, and education (none/primary, technical/professional, secondary school, university, not specified). Red meat, poultry, and processed meat were mutually adjusted.

  • dModel 2: Model 1 + smoking (lifelong nonsmoking, former smoking with quitting ≥10 years, former smoking with quitting <10 years, current smoking with <15 cigarettes/day, current smoking with 15–24, current smoking with ≥25 cigarettes/day, current smoking other than cigarettes combined with smoking with unknown quantity, and missing).

  • eModel 3: Model 2 + alcohol consumption (g/d), drinking history (never, former, unknown), BMI (kg/m2), physical activity (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, and active), citrus and noncitrus fruits, and vegetables.