Table 1.

Overall characteristics of the study population

Total (n = 146)Females (n = 80)Males (n = 66)P (males vs. females)
Smoking status (former/current)61/8534/4627/390.846
Age, y60.2 ± 8.8a59.6 ± 9.160.9 ± 8.40.340
BMI (kg/m2)28.6 ± 6.828.3 ± 6.829.1 ± 6.90.481
Pack-years42.8 ± 19.440.1 ± 17.046.1 ± 21.60.062
FEV1/FVC (%)69.5 ± 11.272.2 ± 8.866.2 ± 12.90.004
Multivitamin supplement use (no/yes)138/874/664/20.238
Dietary micronutrient intake
 Retinol (μg/day)474 ± 344446 ± 286507 ± 4010.304
 Total carotenoids (μg/day)12,153 ± 9,09613,328 ± 10,74810,797 ± 6,5280.101
 α-Tocopherol (mg/day)7.49 ± 4.297.36 ± 4.177.64 ± 4.440.653
  • aMean ± SD