Table 1.

Characteristics of primary care patients by race ethnicity

African-AmericanHispanicNon-Hispanic whiteOtherAll patients
N = 632 (6.8%)N = 5,876 (63.4%)N = 2,470 (26.7%)N = 289 (3.1%)N = 9,267 (100%)P valuea
Demographic outcomes
Age, y, mean (SD)57 (5.4)58.1 (5.7)58.1 (5.9)58.3 (6.1)58.1 (5.8)<0.001
Insurance type, n (%)<0.001
 CareLink Ab108 (17.1)784 (13.3)231 (9.4)31 (10.7)1,154 (12.5)
 CareLink otherc129 (20.4)2,091 (35.6)696 (28.2)125 (43.3)3,041 (32.8)
 Medicaid90 (14.2)498 (8.5)181 (7.3)20 (6.9)789 (8.5)
 Medicare171 (27.1)1,723 (29.3)616 (24.9)40 (13.8)2,550 (27.5)
 Private/state agency82 (13)654 (11.1)622 (25.2)67 (23.2)1,425 (15.4)
 Otherd52 (8.2)126 (2.1)124 (5)6 (2.1)308 (3.3)
Length of observatione (y), mean (SD)2 (0.7)2.1 (0.7)1.9 (0.8)2 (0.7)2 (0.7)<0.001
Clinical outcomes, n (%)
 BPHf34 (5.4)344 (5.9)127 (5.1)11 (3.8)516 (5.6)0.32
 Cancerg20 (3.2)123 (2.1)84 (3.4)10 (3.5)237 (2.6)0.003
 Diabetesh235 (37.2)3,182 (54.2)852 (34.5)116 (40.1)4,385 (47.3)<0.001
 Hypertensioni455 (72)4,049 (68.9)1,400 (56.7)176 (60.9)6,080 (65.6)<0.001
 Ischemic heart diseasej111 (17.6)1,348 (22.9)482 (19.5)69 (23.9)2,010 (21.7)<0.001
 Depressionk77 (12.2)755 (12.8)310 (12.6)14 (4.8)1,156 (12.5)0.001
No. of non–prostate-related clinical conditionsl
 0125 (19.8)1,052 (17.9)708 (28.7)76 (26.3)1,961 (21.2)<0.001
 1213 (33.7)1,576 (26.8)760 (30.8)88 (30.4)2,637 (28.5)
 2206 (32.6)2,049 (34.9)690 (27.9)83 (28.7)3,028 (32.7)
 ≥388 (13.9)1,199 (20.4)312 (12.6)42 (14.5)1,641 (17.7)
  • aComparison among different racial ethnic groups.

  • bCareLink plan A: poverty guideline range (PGR) 75% or below (24).

  • cIncluding CareLink plan B (PGR = 76–150%), CareLink plan C (PGR = 151–200%), and CareLink plus plan (PGR = 201–300%) (24).

  • dIncluding self-pay, indigent care, Tricare/VA, research billing, prisoner-Bexar county, prisoner-other and projects.

  • eLength of observation (y): time from the first to last encounter in the 3-year study period.

  • fBenign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): ICD9 = 600.XX.

  • gCancer of colon, rectum, breast, lung, or genitourinary system: ICD9 = 153.X, 154.X, 174.X, 162.X, 188.X or 189.X.

  • hDiabetes: ICD9 = 250.XX or 250.X.

  • iHypertension: ICD9 = 401.X.

  • jIschemic heart disease: ICD9 = 410.X, 411.X, 413.X, or 414.X.

  • kDepression: ICD9 = 296.2X, 196.3X, or 311.

  • lNon-prostate-related clinical conditions include diseases in notes g to k.