Table 3.

Univariate analysis of p53 expression

Total p53a (N = 464)Moderate-to-strong p53 expressiona,b
NegativePositiveNegativePositive
n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
Age
 ≤5112 (21.8)43 (78.2)26 (47.3)29 (52.7)
 >5196 (23.5)313 (76.5)229 (56.0)180 (44.0)
P = 0.72p = 0.22
Gender
 Female17 (17.5)80 (82.5)53 (54.6)44 (45.4)
 Male91 (24.8)276 (75.2)202 (55.0)165 (45.0)
P = 0.13P = 0.94
Region
 ME93 (25.6)270 (74.4)206 (56.8)167 (43.2)
 VT15 (14.9)86 (85.1)49 (48.5)52 (51.5)
P = 0.02P = 0.14
Smoking status
 Never11 (17.5)52 (82.5)33 (52.4)30 (47.6)
 Former58 (24.7)177 (75.3)137 (58.3)98 (41.7)
 Current36 (23.4)118 (76.6)80 (52.0)74 (48.0)
P = 0.48P = 0.41
Pack-yearsc
 <2222 (20.4)86 (79.6)61 (56.5)47 (43.5)
 22–5748 (24.7)146 (75.3)112 (57.7)82 (42.3)
 >5727 (27.3)72 (72.7)49 (49.5)50 (51.5)
P = 0.50P = 0.39
Grade
 I48 (21.9)171 (78.1)133 (60.7)86 (39.3)
 II24 (28.2)61 (71.8)50 (58.5)35 (41.2)
 III/IV36 (22.6)123 (77.4)71 (44.7)88 (55.3)
P = 0.49P = 0.006
Stage/grade
 Low46 (21.7)166 (78.3)127 (59.9)85 (40.1)
 Intermediate24 (27.6)63 (72.4)52 (59.8)35 (40.2)
 High38 (23.2)126 (76.2)75 (45.7)89 (54.3)
P = 0.55P = 0.01
  • aP value from χ2 test.

  • bModerate-to-strong expression: median percent of 2+ and 3+ out of total cells analyzed.

  • cYears smoked among smokers (n = 667) in quartiles (<25th percentile, ≥25th–<75th percentile, ≥75th percentile).