Table 1.

Selected baseline characteristics [medians (interquartile range) or n (%)] for case and control subjects, PLCO Study

CharacteristicsControls (N = 364)Cases (N = 369)P
Age, y64 (61–67)64 (60–68)Matched
Male294 (80.8)298 (80.8)Matched
European descent344 (94.5)348 (94.3)Matched
Height, cm178 (170–183)175 (168–180)0.19
Weight, kg84.7 (77.2–94.3)83.2 (74.1–93.2)0.12
Body mass index, kg/m227.2 (24.7–30.1)27.2 (24.4–29.5)0.67
Education
 <High school27 (7.4)30 (8.1)0.13
 High-school graduate71 (19.5)83 (22.5)
 Some college or vocational training108 (29.7)131 (35.5)
 College graduate66 (18.1)54 (14.6)
 Postgraduate91 (25.0)71 (19.2)
Smoking status
 Never160 (44.0)95 (25.6)<0.0001
 Former169 (46.4)217 (58.8)
 Current35 (9.6)57 (15.5)
Hours spent in vigorous activity
 None40 (11.0)55 (14.9)0.16
 ≤3 h/wk204 (56.0)193 (52.3)
 ≥4 h/wk96 (26.4)89 (24.1)
Family history of bladder cancer6 (1.7)7 (1.9)0.71
Personal history of type 2 diabetes30 (8.2)33 (8.9)0.73
Regular aspirin use180 (49.5)207 (56.1)0.08
Regular ibuprofen use85 (22.4)108 (29.3)0.07
Dietary and supplement intake (/d)
 Total energy, kcal2,162 (1,628–2,656)2,091 (1,520–2,665)0.32
 Vitamin D, μg4.9 (3.4–7.6)4.8 (3.2–7.1)0.32
 Calcium, mg905 (682–1,266)894 (606–1,188)0.14
 Dairy food (MyPyramid cup equivalents)1.7 (1.1–2.5)1.5 (0.9–2.3)0.01
 Red meat, g68.5 (41.4–115.0)78.2 (43.3–121.9)0.26
 Supplemental vitamin D, μg0 (0–10.0)0 (0–10.0)0.87
 Supplemental calcium, mg0 (0–162)0 (0–162)0.96
 Supplemental vitamin E, mg13.5 (0–180)13.5 (0–104)0.67
Serum 25(OH)D, nmol/L53.6 (39.5–68.1)52.4 (39.6–65.8)0.59
Serum DBP, μg/mL237 (186–295)232 (189–290)0.68