Cigarette smoke (N = 163) | Spit tobacco (N = 76) | Iqmik (N = 20) | Dual use (N = 31) | Nonuser (N = 107) | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Tobacco use | |||||

Cigarettes/d | 7.8 (5.21) | — | — | 5.7 (3.1) | — |

Tins/wk | — | 1.6 (1.5) | 1.2 (1.3) | 1.3 (1.0)^{e} | |

0.5 (0.6)^{f} | |||||

Plasma | |||||

Cotinine, ng/mL | 170.6^{c} (154.5–186.6) | 221.0^{b} (190.7–251.2) | 343.2^{a} (251.6–434.8) | 187.1^{b}^{,}^{c} (141.1–233.1) | 0.3^{d} (0.1–0.5) |

3HC, ng/mL | 75.5^{b} (65.4–85.5) | 95.1^{b} (76.6–113.5) | 207.1^{a} (120.0–294.3) | 76.1^{b} (54.5–97.7) | 0.1^{c} (0.05–0.2) |

Cotinine + 3HC, nmol/mL | 1.36^{c} (1.23–1.49) | 1.75^{b} (1.50–1.99) | 3.03^{a} (2.16–3.89) | 1.46^{b}^{,}^{c} (1.10–1.81) | 0.002^{d} (0.001–0.003) |

Urine | |||||

Nicotine equivalents, pmol/mg creatinine | 61.4^{b} (54.8–68.1) | 72.8^{b} (59.6–86.0) | 116.8^{a} (96.3–137.2) | 55.2^{b} (41.4–69.0) | 0.1^{c} (0–0.001) |

NNAL, pmol/mg creatinine | 0.89^{c}^{,}^{d} (0.76–1.04) | 4.14^{a} (3.40–5.04) | 0.59^{c} (0.40–0.86) | 1.08^{d} (0.67–1.74) | 0.01^{b} (0.01–0.02) |

NNN^{g}, pmol/mg creatinine | 0.00059^{a} (0.00048–0.000073) | 0.00070^{a} (0.00053–0.00092) | 0.00074^{a} (0.00028–0.00196) | 0.00114^{a} (0.00071–0.00183) | 0.00008^{b} (0.00004–0.00016) |

2-Napthol, pmol/mg creatinine | 103.2^{a} (89.4–119.2) | 45.2^{b}^{,}^{c} (36.6–55.9) | 29.5^{b} (23.1–37.7) | 63.1^{c} (48.0–82.8) | 47.3^{b}^{,}^{c} (37.6–59.6) |

Sum of hydroxyfluorenes, pmol/mg creatinine | 13.2^{a} (11.6–15.1) | 6.1^{b} (5–7.4) | 5.8^{b} (4.7–7.2) | 7.8^{b} (4.9–12.4) | 6.2^{b} (5.1–7.6) |

Sum of hydroxyphenanthrenes, pmol/mg creatinine | 2.8^{a} (2.4–3.2) | 2.4^{a} (1.8–3.2) | 1.9^{a} (1.4–2.6) | 2.2^{a} (1.3–3.6) | 2.3^{a} (1.9–2.9) |

1-Hydroxypyrene, pmol/g creatinine | 1.25^{a} (1.08–1.44) | 1.05^{a}^{,}^{b} (0.75–1.46) | 1.05^{a}^{,}^{b} (0.65–1.71) | 0.89^{a}^{,}^{b} (0.69–1.14) | 0.83^{b} (0.64–1.08) |

NOTE: Tobacco use parameters shown as mean (SD); plasma cotinine, 3HC, (cotinine + 3HC), and urine nicotine equivalents shown as arithmetic mean (95% CI); urine NNAL, NNN, and PAH metabolites shown as geometric mean (95% CI). Values in parenthesis indicate 95% CI.