Table 2.

Tobacco use and exposure biomarker levels

Cigarette smoke (N = 163)Spit tobacco (N = 76)Iqmik (N = 20)Dual use (N = 31)Nonuser (N = 107)
Tobacco use
 Cigarettes/d7.8 (5.21)5.7 (3.1)
 Tins/wk1.6 (1.5)1.2 (1.3)1.3 (1.0)e
0.5 (0.6)f
Plasma
 Cotinine, ng/mL170.6c (154.5–186.6)221.0b (190.7–251.2)343.2a (251.6–434.8)187.1b,c (141.1–233.1)0.3d (0.1–0.5)
 3HC, ng/mL75.5b (65.4–85.5)95.1b (76.6–113.5)207.1a (120.0–294.3)76.1b (54.5–97.7)0.1c (0.05–0.2)
 Cotinine + 3HC, nmol/mL1.36c (1.23–1.49)1.75b (1.50–1.99)3.03a (2.16–3.89)1.46b,c (1.10–1.81)0.002d (0.001–0.003)
Urine
 Nicotine equivalents, pmol/mg creatinine61.4b (54.8–68.1)72.8b (59.6–86.0)116.8a (96.3–137.2)55.2b (41.4–69.0)0.1c (0–0.001)
 NNAL, pmol/mg creatinine0.89c,d (0.76–1.04)4.14a (3.40–5.04)0.59c (0.40–0.86)1.08d (0.67–1.74)0.01b (0.01–0.02)
 NNNg, pmol/mg creatinine0.00059a (0.00048–0.000073)0.00070a (0.00053–0.00092)0.00074a (0.00028–0.00196)0.00114a (0.00071–0.00183)0.00008b (0.00004–0.00016)
 2-Napthol, pmol/mg creatinine103.2a (89.4–119.2)45.2b,c (36.6–55.9)29.5b (23.1–37.7)63.1c (48.0–82.8)47.3b,c (37.6–59.6)
 Sum of hydroxyfluorenes, pmol/mg creatinine13.2a (11.6–15.1)6.1b (5–7.4)5.8b (4.7–7.2)7.8b (4.9–12.4)6.2b (5.1–7.6)
 Sum of hydroxyphenanthrenes, pmol/mg creatinine2.8a (2.4–3.2)2.4a (1.8–3.2)1.9a (1.4–2.6)2.2a (1.3–3.6)2.3a (1.9–2.9)
 1-Hydroxypyrene, pmol/g creatinine1.25a (1.08–1.44)1.05a,b (0.75–1.46)1.05a,b (0.65–1.71)0.89a,b (0.69–1.14)0.83b (0.64–1.08)

NOTE: Tobacco use parameters shown as mean (SD); plasma cotinine, 3HC, (cotinine + 3HC), and urine nicotine equivalents shown as arithmetic mean (95% CI); urine NNAL, NNN, and PAH metabolites shown as geometric mean (95% CI). Values in parenthesis indicate 95% CI.

  • a,b,c,dValues with the same letter are not significantly different; different letters indicates significant differences between groups, P < 0.01.

  • eSmokeless.

  • fIqmik

  • gN: cigarette smokers, 140; spit tobacco, 72; iqmik, 20; dual use,28; nonusers, 23.