Table 1.

Nicotine and nitrosamine content of tobacco products

Biomarker meanCigarette (N = 24)Commercial smokeless tobacco (N = 22)Iqmik nonpremasticated (N = 19)Iqmik premasticated (N = 4)Pd
Nicotine, mg/g18.68c (17.80–19.56)12.54b (11.79–13.30)12.98b (11.71–14.26)12.61 (4.48–20.75)<0.001
NAB, ng/g79.7b (69.6–89.9)181.2a (139.8–222.5)62.5b (48.0–77.0)104.0e (0–257.8)<0.001
NAT, ng/g1421.6b (1,206.2–1,637.0)2,453.5a (1,616.6–3,290.5)938.3c (733.5–1,143.2)1,580.8e (0–4,025.9)<0.001
NNK, ng/g536.9b (467.7–606.2)829.0a (679.6–978.4)81.8c (56.5–107.0)565.3e (0–2,108.3)<0.001
NNN, ng/g2,028.1b (1707.1–2,349.1)2,874.3a (2,207.6–3,541.0)846.8c (628.7–1,065.0)1,065.8e (0–2,466.4)<0.001
NNAL, ng/g52.4b (45.5–59.3)166.5a (113.3–219.6)24.7c (10.9–38.4)59.9e (0–155.9)<0.001

NOTE: Values in parenthesis indicate 95% CI.

  • a,b,cValues with the same letter are not significantly different; different letters indicate significant differences compared with other products, P < 0.01; comparisons only among commercial cigarettes, commercial ST, and Iqmik nonmasticated.

  • dThe P value was derived from the nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis test. “Iqmik premasticated” was excluded from the comparisons between groups due to a very small sample size.

  • eThe lower limit of the CI was truncated at zero.