Table 2.

Summary statistics for the association between consumption of pickled vegetables/foods and gastric cancera

SubgroupsNumber of studiesPbI2 (%)cRandom-effects OR (95% CI)
All studies60<0.00180.01.52 (1.37–1.68)
By study design
 Prospective studies10<0.00169.91.32 (1.10–1.59)
 Case–control studies50<0.00180.81.56 (1.39–1.75)
 With population-based controls30<0.00175.81.55 (1.36–1.76)
 Adjusted results160.00454.71.38 (1.22–1.56)
By geographic area
 Studies from Korea6<0.00184.61.89 (1.29–2.77)
 Studies from mainland China29<0.00177.71.86 (1.61–2.15)
 Studies from Japan130.0937.41.16 (1.04–1.29)
 Studies from other countries120.0158.21.14 (0.96–1.35)
By exposure typed
 Pickled vegetables42<0.00181.01.48 (1.30–1.66)
 Pickled food19<0.00176.61.63 (1.37–1.94)
  • aGastric cancer risk in those who used pickled food/vegetable compared with those who did not use (11 studies) or consumed it minimally (lowest category of use, 49 studies).

  • bPheterogeneity, χ2.

  • cHiggins I2 statistic for heterogeneity.

  • dOne study (39) reported risk estimates for pickled vegetables and foods separately. Combined estimates were included in above analyses but for analyses by exposure type the separate estimates were included in the relevant subgroup analyses.