Table 3.

Adjusted ORs and 95% CIs for risk of RCCs associated with smoking variables, by hypertensive status and race

WhiteBlack
CasesControlsOR (95% CI)aPtrenda,bCasesControlsOR (95% CI)aPtrenda,b
Normotensive
Number of years smoked0.0050.03
 Never smoked1371811.00 (ref)361111.00 (ref)
 ≤935520.93 (0.55–1.56)4120.89 (0.23–3.40)
 10–2054631.06 (0.66–1.71)11450.72 (0.33–1.60)
 21–3053551.09 (0.71–1.68)21371.63 (0.78–3.43)
 31–4059401.71 (1.05–2.81)18401.37 (0.66–2.89)
 41+44302.20 (1.26–3.86)9122.97 (0.90–9.85)
Pack-years0.0040.30
 Never smoked1371811.00 (ref)361111.00 (ref)
 0.1–≤10.9955800.95 (0.62–1.45)17451.18 (0.62–2.24)
 11–20.9940501.04 (0.60–1.82)14441.03 (0.49–2.15)
 21–40.9982621.64 (1.12–2.41)18411.25 (0.66–2.39)
 41+68461.85 (1.09–3.13)13162.29 (0.88–5.94)
Years since quitting0.070.10
 Current106831.00 (ref)37731.00 (ref)
 <527241.16 (0.59–2.27)9151.57 (0.45–5.43)
 6–1546321.06 (0.59–1.88)8230.52 (0.20–1.38)
 16–2535460.64 (0.37–1.12)7141.43 (0.51–4.00)
 25+31550.53 (0.25–1.14)2210.15 (0.01–1.75)
Smoking history0.030.66
 Never smoked1371811.00 (ref)361111.00 (ref)
 Occasional16240.94 (0.52–1.68)3140.60 (0.16–2.22)
 Former/light761031.02 (0.67–1.54)14480.93 (0.48–1.82)
 Current/light19270.85 (0.45–1.63)17411.22 (0.53–2.79)
 Former/heavy63521.51 (0.93–2.47)12251.33 (0.56–3.11)
 Current/heavy87561.89 (1.21–2.96)19321.58 (0.79–3.16)
Hypertensive
Number of years smoked0.070.15
 Never smoked1671041.00 (ref)87731.00 (ref)
 ≤922150.91 (0.43–1.91)9150.40 (0.18–1.01)
 10–2053390.80 (0.47–1.36)27220.81 (0.36–1.81)
 21–3046340.71 (0.46–1.09)32390.72 (0.40–1.29)
 31–4070321.15 (0.69–1.90)52450.95 (0.55–1.64)
 41+68371.10 (0.70–1.74)29350.97 (0.53–1.77)
Pack-years0.280.92
 Never smoked1671041.00 (ref)87731.00 (ref)
 0.1–≤10.9940290.77 (0.43–1.38)45470.74 (0.45–1.23)
 11–20.0038280.77 (0.44–1.35)32350.85 (0.49–1.46)
 20.01–40.0080450.85 (0.59–1.23)44380.81 (0.48–1.35)
 40.01+101550.92 (0.61–1.37)28360.68 (0.37–1.25)
Years since quitting0.220.29
 Current97411.00 (ref)72651.00 (ref)
 <52571.97 (0.77–5.04)19190.83 (0.39–1.80)
 6–1540280.63 (0.34–1.18)25240.89 (0.45–1.75)
 16–2541360.63 (0.33–1.18)18270.64 (0.28–1.45)
 25+57450.86 (0.44–1.67)16220.72 (0.32–1.62)
Smoking history0.630.24
 Never smoked1671041.00 (ref)87731.00 (ref)
 Occasional181NA18161.19 (0.54–2.61)
 Former/light64520.78 (0.50–1.23)40530.62 (0.38–1.01)
 Current/light1451.81 (0.65–5.03)37291.35 (0.70–2.62)
 Former/heavy99640.86 (0.60–1.24)38390.86 (0.47–1.57)
 Current/heavy82361.17 (0.74–1.84)34350.72 (0.42–1.24)

NOTE: Occasional smokers are not included in the number of years smoked, pack-years, or years since quitting analyses.

Abbreviation: NA, could not be calculated.

  • aAdjusted for age, study site, BMI, education, family history of kidney cancer in a first-degree relative, and gender (years since quitting also adjusted for pack-years).

  • bFor smoking history, this number represents the overall test of significance.