Table 2.

Dairy intake and HRs and 95% CIs of lethal prostate cancer (N = 298) among 3,918 men with prostate cancer

Dairy product intakeNo.Model 1aModel 2bModel 3c
Total milk, servingsHR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
 0–3/mo441.001.001.00
 >3/mo to 4/wk570.87 (0.57–1.32)0.90 (0.59–1.37)1.01 (0.65–1.56)
 >4/wk to 1/d1191.09 (0.76–1.58)1.10 (0.75–1.59)1.14 (0.77–1.69)
 >1/d780.96 (0.64–1.44)0.95 (0.63–1.43)0.89 (0.58–1.37)
Ptrend0.920.770.33
Skim to 2% fat milk, servings
 0–3/mo661.001.001.00
 >3/mo to 4/wk570.77 (0.53–1.12)0.78 (0.54–1.15)0.85 (0.57–1.27)
 >4/wk to 1/d1040.86 (0.62–1.20)0.84 (0.60–1.18)0.86 (0.61–1.23)
 >1/d710.82 (0.57–1.19)0.81 (0.56–1.18)0.73 (0.49–1.09)
Ptrend0.620.570.17
Whole milk, servings
 0–3/mo2641.001.001.00
 >3/mo to 4/wk130.87 (0.48–1.58)0.83 (0.45–1.53)0.89 (0.47–1.67)
 >4/wk212.07 (1.26–3.40)2.09 (1.27–3.44)2.15 (1.28–3.60)
Ptrend<0.01<0.01<0.01
Total dairy, quintilesd, servings
 1 (0 to 0.9/d)601.001.001.00
 2 (>0.9 to 1.3/d)580.82 (0.56–1.21)0.83 (0.56–1.23)0.83 (0.55–1.25)
 3 (>1.3 to 1.8/d)580.80 (0.54–1.19)0.80 (0.53–1.19)0.96 (0.63–1.46)
 4 (>1.8 to 2.9/d)640.80 (0.54–1.19)0.80 (0.53–1.20)0.83 (0.54–1.27)
 5 (>2.9/d)580.71 (0.47–1.08)0.70 (0.46–1.07)0.68 (0.43–1.05)
Ptrend0.150.130.09
Low-fat dairy, quintilesd, servings
 1 (0 to 0.1/d)651.001.001.00
 2 (>0.1 to 0.6/d)520.68 (0.46–1.01)0.72 (0.49–1.07)0.76 (0.50–1.14)
 3 (>0.6 to 1.0/d)600.80 (0.55–1.16)0.81 (0.55–1.18)0.83 (0.56–1.23)
 4 (>1.0 to 1.4/d)670.86 (0.59–1.24)0.86 (0.59–1.26)0.95 (0.64–1.41)
 5 (>1.4/d)540.67 (0.45–1.00)0.68 (0.46–1.02)0.62 (0.40–0.95)
Ptrend0.170.160.07
Full fat dairy, quintilesd, servings
 1 (0 to 0.2/d)461.001.001.00
 2 (>0.2 to 0.6/d)721.58 (1.06–2.35)1.57 (1.05–2.34)1.50 (0.99–2.27)
 3 (>0.6 to 1.0/d)631.38 (0.92–2.08)1.37 (0.90–2.07)1.33 (0.86–2.06)
 4 (>1.0 to 1.7/d)551.07 (0.70–1.63)1.06 (0.69–1.63)1.04 (0.66–1.62)
 5 (>1.7/d)621.34 (0.87–2.06)1.30 (0.83–2.04)1.30 (0.82–2.07)
Ptrend0.910.950.95
  • aAdjusted for age at diagnosis (continuous) and total caloric intake (quintiles).

  • bAdjusted for variables in model 1 + smoking status (nonsmoker and smoker), BMI (<25, 25–29.9, and 30+), exercise in MET-h/wk (quintiles), tomato sauce intake (<1 serving/wk, 1–1.99 servings/wk, and 2- servings/wk), and α-linolenic acid intake (quintiles).

  • cAdjusted for variables in model 1 + 2 + TNM stage (T1, T2, and T3a), Gleason score (<7, 7, >7, and unknown), and PSA at diagnosis (<10, 10–20, >20, and unknown).

  • dCut points for quintiles of servings per day refer to the cut points for the baseline year, 1986. The cut points for the quintiles vary over time.