Table 2.

Pooled age-adjusted and multivariatea RRs and 95% CIs of pancreatic cancer for coffee, tea, and SSB intake

BeverageI2b, %PhetcPhet SexdPtrende
Coffeef
 Intake category, g/d00.01–<150150–<400400–<900≥900
 No. of cases (females, males)95, 5456, 79153, 163327, 411127, 130
Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)
 Total1.00 (Ref)1.16 (0.84–1.60)1.03 (0.84–1.27)1.15 (0.96–1.39)1.33 (0.99–1.78)390.070.680.20
 Females1.00 (Ref)0.87 (0.54–1.40)1.01 (0.77–1.32)1.10 (0.86–1.41)1.44 (0.88–2.37)650.010.11
 Males1.00 (Ref)1.56 (1.06–2.29)1.06 (0.76–1.47)1.24 (0.91–1.67)1.15 (0.82–1.63)00.830.68
Multivariate RR (95% CI)a
 Total1.00 (Ref)1.16 (0.84–1.60)1.01 (0.82–1.25)1.08 (0.89–1.31)1.10 (0.81–1.48)380.080.690.71
 Females1.00 (Ref)0.87 (0.53–1.43)1.00 (0.76–1.32)1.04 (0.80–1.34)1.18 (0.71–1.98)650.010.50
 Males1.00 (Ref)1.53 (1.03–2.26)1.02 (0.73–1.43)1.15 (0.84–1.58)0.95 (0.67–1.36)00.830.06
Teaf
 Intake category, g/d00.01–<150150–<400≥400
 No. of cases (females, males)253, 380190, 186157, 146158, 125
Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)
 Total1.00 (Ref)0.88 (0.76–1.01)0.90 (0.77–1.04)0.89 (0.73–1.07)210.220.130.42
 Females1.00 (Ref)0.88 (0.72–1.08)0.96 (0.77–1.18)0.77 (0.55–1.07)450.090.37
 Males1.00 (Ref)0.87 (0.71–1.07)0.84 (0.68–1.04)1.01 (0.80–1.27)00.820.94
Multivariate RR (95% CI)a
 Total1.00 (Ref)0.93 (0.81–1.08)0.97 (0.83–1.13)0.96 (0.78–1.16)240.190.170.96
 Females1.00 (Ref)0.95 (0.77–1.16)1.03 (0.83–1.28)0.84 (0.59–1.18)460.080.65
 Males1.00 (Ref)0.92 (0.74–1.14)0.91 (0.74–1.13)1.08 (0.86–1.37)00.730.59
SSBsg, h
 Intake category, g/d00.01–<125125–<250≥250
 No. of cases (females, males)656, 477333, 32261, 6640, 92
Age-adjusted RR (95% CI)
 Total1.00 (Ref)0.95 (0.86–1.05)0.95 (0.78–1.16)1.19 (0.97–1.45)40.410.650.21
 Females1.00 (Ref)1.02 (0.89–1.17)1.05 (0.81–1.38)1.26 (0.91–1.76)00.600.23
 Males1.00 (Ref)0.87 (0.75–1.01)0.82 (0.54–1.23)1.17 (0.86–1.59)340.180.54
Multivariate RR (95% CI)a
 Total1.00 (Ref)1.01 (0.91–1.11)1.00 (0.82–1.21)1.19 (0.98–1.46)00.540.890.15
 Females1.00 (Ref)1.07 (0.93–1.23)1.09 (0.83–1.43)1.22 (0.87–1.70)00.600.32
 Males1.00 (Ref)0.93 (0.80–1.08)0.86 (0.59–1.24)1.19 (0.89–1.59)200.280.37
  • aMultivariate RRs were adjusted for smoking status (never smokers; past smokers, pack-years <15 years; past smokers, pack-years ≥15 years; current smokers, pack-years <40 years, current smokers, pack-years ≥40 years), alcohol intake (0, 0.1–14.9, 15–29.9, ≥30 g/d), history of diabetes (no, yes), BMI (continuously), and energy intake (continuously); age in years and year of questionnaire return were included as stratification variables.

  • bI2 statistic, which describes percentage of total variation that is due to heterogeneity rather than chance, is based on the highest category of beverage intake.

  • cP value, test for between-studies heterogeneity is based on the highest category of beverage intake.

  • dP value, test for between-studies heterogeneity due to sex is based on the highest category of beverage intake.

  • eP value, test for trend.

  • fThe BCDDP Follow-up Cohort, the CPS II Nutrition Cohort, and CTS were not included in these analyses because they did not measure consumption of this beverage or the particular beverage was not assessed as a separate item.

  • gThe NYSC (males and females) were not included in these analyses the particular beverage was not assessed as a separate item.

  • hThe MCCS (females) were not included in the analysis for the ≥250 category due to the small number of cases (n< 10).