Table 3.

Risk factors associated with prevalent oral HPV infection in univariate and multivariate analysis, by HIV status

OR (95%CI)d
HIV-positiveHIV-negative
Risk factorsOverall oral HPV prevalence, %UnivariateMultivariateUnivariateMultivariate
Age, y
 <45311111
 45–54360.92 (0.63–1.3)0.84 (0.57–1.2)1.7 (0.85–3.2)1.2 (0.54–2.7)
 ≥54351.1 (0.71–1.6)1.2 (0.77–1.8)1.8 (1.0–3.4)2.1 (1.0–4.4)
Ptrend0.48a0.30a0.020.01
Gender
 Female (WIHS)301111
 Male (MACS)381.2 (0.82–1.6)3.0 (1.7–5.1)1.2 (0.71–2.2)0.97 (0.45–2.1)
Education
 Any college331111
 High school degree331.3 (0.87–2.1)1.8 (1.0–3.1)1.2 (0.53–2.5)1.3 (0.56–2.9)
 <High school degree381.5 (1.0–2.3)2.1 (1.2–3.5)0.94 (0.44–2.0)0.90 (0.34–2.3)
Ptrend0.02<0.0010.990.66
Behavioral
Smoked cigarettes in past 6 mo
 No (<1/d)291111
 Yes441.8 (1.3–2.5)a1.7 (1.2–2.3)a1.8 (1.1–2.9)a2.8 (1.8–4.4)a
Consumed alcoholic drinks in past 6 mo
 No (<1/mo)37111
 Yes310.73 (0.51–1.0)0.74 (0.49–1.1)1.2 (0.70–2.0)
Sexual activity
Number of oral sex partners in last 6 mo
 0321111
 1320.92 (0.63–1.3)0.90 (0.60–1.4)0.95 (0.49–1.8)1.4 (0.69–2.9)
 2–4360.84 (0.47–1.5)0.85 (0.50–1.5)1.7 (0.92–3.1)2.9 (1.5–5.8)
 ≥5461.3 (0.71–2.3)1.2 (0.63–2.1)1.8 (0.92–3.4)2.7 (1.3–5.8)
Ptrend0.460.880.01a0.003a
Lifetime number of oral sex partners
 0–4 partners281111
 5–19 partners321.2 (0.74–1.9)1.2 (0.72–1.9)1.4 (0.61–3.0)1.4 (0.59–3.1)
 20–99 partners341.3 (0.78–2.1)1.5 (0.82–2.7)1.0 (0.51–2.1)0.87 (0.33–2.3)
 ≥100 partners441.4 (0.94–2.2)1.8 (1.0–3.2)1.6 (0.83–3.1)1.3 (0.52–3.4)
Ptrend0.05a, c0.03a, c0.03c0.11c
Number of rimming partners in last 6 mob
 0331111
 1431.1 (0.68–1.8)1.3 (0.75–2.1)1.6 (0.81–3.1)2.4 (1.1–5.0)
 2–4461.0 (0.51–1.9)1.0 (0.51–1.9)2.1 (1.0–4.4)2.7 (1.2–6.1)
 ≥5501.0 (0.31–3.2)1.0 (0.31–2.9)2.5 (1.4–4.7)3.0 (1.6–5.9)
Ptrend0.670.51<0.0010.002
HIV related
Current CD4 T-cell count, cells/μL
 >5003711
 200–500411.7 (1.2–2.4)1.6 (1.1–2.3)
 <200582.6 (1.7–4.1)2.1 (1.3–3.2)
Ptrend<0.001<0.001
Nadir CD4 T-cell count, cells/μL
 >500261
 200–500381.8 (1.0–3.2)
 <200502.2 (1.2–4.1)
Ptrend0.003
Current HAART
 No341
 Yes431.1 (0.73–1.6)
Current HIV viral load, copies/mL
 <50381
 50–20,000391.3 (0.90–2.0)
 ≥20,000592.3 (1.5–3.5)
Ptrend0.001
  • aEffect modification by MACS/WIHS study cohort not included in this model but is reported in Table 4.

  • bThe data for rimming presented are in analysis among MACS participants only (because rimming was not measured in the WIHS) and number of recent oral sex partners was not adjusted for in this model because number of recent oral and rimming partners were strongly correlated (r = 0.65). Rimming was not adjusted for in the other variables presented in the table.

  • cLifetime oral sex partners Ptrend excludes 46 individuals with >500 lifetime sex partners. When these individuals were included, Ptrend is attenuated.

  • dModel adjusted for age, gender, education, current cigarette use, and number of recent and lifetime oral sex partners. HIV-positive model was also adjusted for alcohol use, study site, and current CD4 T-cell count.