Table 3.

Depression assessments of 15 RCTs examining the exercise effects on depressive symptoms in cancer survivors

TrialPrimary outcome of interest assessed in studyDepression inventory usedBaseline depression score, mean (SD)Follow-up depression score, mean (SD)
Badger and colleagues (2007)DepressionCES-DIntervention: 13.3 (2.4)6 wk
Control: 9.9 (1.8)Intervention: 11.32 (2.10) 14.6% reduction in symptoms
Control: 9.35 (1.57) 5.4% reduction in symptoms Groups did not significantly differ at follow-up
Cadmus and colleagues (2009)QOLCES-DIntervention: 10.7 (7.3)6 mo
Control: 12.2 (6.5)Intervention: 7.9 (7.1) 26.2% reduction in symptoms
Control: 10.0 (7.6) 18.0% reduction in symptoms Groups did not significantly differ at follow-up
Cadmus and colleagues (2009)QOLCES-DIntervention: 9.3 (6.0)6 mo
Control: 9.2 (8.6)Intervention: 9.6 (9.3) 3.2% increase in symptoms
Control: 10.8 (10.1) 17.4% increase in symptoms Groups did not significantly differ at follow-up
Courneya and colleagues (2003)QOLCES-DIntervention: 9.6 (8.1)16 wk
Control: 10.1 (12.0)Intervention: 8.6 (8.7) 10.4% reduction in symptoms
Control: 9.6 (10.9) 5.0% reduction in symptoms Groups did not significantly differ at follow-up
Courneya and colleagues (2007)QOLCES-DIntervention: 12.8 (9.8)9–24 (∼20) wk
Control: 13.9 (9.7)Intervention: 9.7 (9.3) 24.2% reduction in symptoms
Control: 10.8 (9.4) 22.3% reduction in symptoms Groups did not significantly differ at follow-up
Courneya and colleagues (2009)QOLShort Form CES-DIntervention: 7.7 (5.7)12 wk
Control: 6.0 (4.5)Intervention: 5.4 (4.5) 29.9% reduction in symptoms
Control: 6.1 (5.0) 1.7% increase in symptoms Groups differed significantly (P < 0.05) at follow-up
Culos-Reed and colleagues (2010)Physical activity levels and QOLCES-DIntervention: 8.6 (7.9)16 wk
Control: 6.7 (6.4)Intervention: 8.2 (6.7) 4.7% reduction in symptoms
Control: 7.7 (8.6) 14.9% increase in symptoms Groups did not significantly differ at follow-up
Daley and colleagues (2007)QOLBDI-IIIntervention: 13.6 (9.1)8 wk
Control: 10.8 (7.7)Intervention: 6.0 (6.5) 55.9% reduction in depression
Control: 10.3 (7.2) 4.6% reduction in depression Groups differed significantly (P < 0.05) at follow-up
Dodd and colleagues (2010)FatigueCES-DIntervention: 13.1 (9.8)4–6 mo
Control: 10.6 (6.5)Intervention: 13.0 (9.6) 0.8% reduction in symptoms
Control: 10.2 (8.6) 3.8% reduction in symptoms Groups did not significantly differ at follow-up
Kaltsatou and colleagues (2011)Physical functionBDIIntervention: 36.4 (7.2)24 wk
Control: 33.4 (6.9)Intervention: 16.5 (1.7) 54.7% reduction in symptoms
Control: 22.3 (7.7) 33.2% reduction in symptoms Groups differed significantly (P < 0.05) at follow-up
Monga and colleagues (2007)QOL/fatigueBDIIntervention: 3.5 (5.4)8 wk
Control: 3.6 (5.0)Intervention: 2.8 (1.8) 20% reduction in symptoms
Control: 4.2 (3.4) 16.7% increase in symptoms Groups did not significantly differ at follow-up
Mutrie and colleagues (2007)QOLBDIIntervention: 11.8 (6.9)12 wk
Control: 13.0 (7.4)Intervention 8.6 (6.8) 27.1% reduction in symptoms
Control: 11.5 (8.6) 11.5% reduction in symptoms Groups did not significantly differ at follow-up
Payne and colleagues (2008)Fatigue/biomarkersCES-DIntervention: 15.1 (7.9)14 wk
Control: 11.0 (6.7)Intervention: 12.7 (8.7) 15.9% reduction in symptoms
Control: 11.4 (7.9) 3.6% increase in symptoms Groups did not significantly differ at follow-up
Perna and colleagues (2010)Fitness/physical activity levelsCES-DIntervention: 9.95 (8.0)3 mo
Control: 8.6 (7.4)Intervention: 8.8 (8.4) 12.1% reduction in symptoms
Control: 12.4 (11.5) 44.2% increase in symptoms No direct comparison of depression scores between groups was conducted
Thorsen and colleagues (2005)QOLHADSIntervention: 2.9 (2.7)14 wk
Control: 3.1 (3.6)Intervention: 2.2 (2.3) 24.1% reduction in symptoms
Control: 1.9 (2.5) 38.7% reduction in symptoms Groups did not significantly differ at follow-up

Abbreviations: BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; CES-D, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; QOL, quality of life.