Table 4.

Multivariate risk factors for prevalent oral HPV infection among HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects, stratified by study cohort (MACS men compared with WIHS women)

aOR (95% CI)c
HIV-positiveHIV-negative
Risk factorsMenWomenMenWomen
Age, y
 <451111
 45–540.65 (0.39–1.5)0.84 (0.48–1.5)1.1 (0.43–2.6)1.2 (0.37–3.9)
 ≥540.76 (0.43–1.3)1.8 (1.0–3.4)1.9 (0.74–4.7)1.0 (0.20–5.6)
Ptrend0.440.030.070.31
Education
 Any college1111
 High school degree1.8 (0.81–4.0)1.5 (0.75–3.1)1.5 (0.42–5.3)1.0 (0.25–4.1)
 <High school degree1.7 (0.73–3.9)1.7 (0.94–3.1)1.5 (0.44–4.8)0.54 (0.15–1.9)
Ptrend0.020.070.200.38
Behavioral
Smoked cigarettes in past 6 mo
 No (<1/d)1111
 Yes1.2 (0.73–2.0)2.2 (1.4–3.7)1.7 (0.84–3.5)14 (3.2–64)
Consumed alcoholic drinks in past 6 mo
 No (<1/mo)11
 Yes0.76 (0.49–1.2)0.95 (0.47–1.9)
Sexual activity
Number of oral sex partners in last 6 mo
 01111
 11.0 (0.55–1.8)0.93 (0.48–1.8)1.4 (0.57–3.3)1.1 (0.33–3.8)
 2–41.0 (0.57–1.9)a3.3 (1.6–6.8)a
 ≥51.4 (0.74–2.5)a3.1 (1.5–6.3)a
Ptrend0.750.310.005a
Lifetime number of sex partners
 0–41111
 5–190.81 (0.32–2.1)1.0 (0.55–1.8)1.8 (0.48–6.4)1.1 (0.32–3.6)
 20–990.68 (0.22–2.1)2.3 (1.4–3.9)e1.0 (0.31–3.2)1.5 (0.16–14)e
 ≥1000.82 (0.26–2.6)1.5 (0.46–4.7)
Ptrend0.42b<0.001b0.16b0.09b
Number of rimming partners in last 6 mod
 011
 11.3 (0.75–2.1)2.4 (1.1–5.0)
 2–41.0 (0.51–1.9)2.7 (1.2–6.1)
 ≥51.0 (0.31–2.9)3.0 (1.5–5.9)
Ptrend0.510.002
HIV related
Current CD4 T-cell count, cells/μL
 >50011
 200–5001.6 (0.93–2.8)1.6 (0.92–2.6)
 <2001.9 (1.1–3.4)2.1 (1.2–3.6)
Ptrend0.06<0.001
  • aThese categories had <10 individuals and therefore were not included in the models.

  • bLifetime oral sex partners Ptrend excludes 46 individuals with >500 lifetime sex partners. When these individuals were included, Ptrend is attenuated.

  • cModels adjusted for age, education, current cigarette use, number of recent and lifetime oral sex partners. HIV-positive models also adjusted for study site, current alcohol use, and current CD4 T-cell count.

  • dThe data for rimming presented are in analysis among MACS participants only (as rimming was not measured in the WIHS) and number of recent oral sex partners was not adjusted for in this model as number of recent oral and rimming partners were strongly correlated (r = 0.65). Rimming was not adjusted for in other models presented in the table.

  • eAnalyzed as 20 or more lifetime partners due to spare data.