Table 1.

Measures of smoke exposure

All subjects (n = 16)Men (n = 8)Women (n = 8)Water pipe only smokers (n = 13)Mixed tobacco users (n = 3)
Duration of smoking, min39 (35–43)41 (33–49)36 (33–40)37 (34–40)47 (18–76)
Number of puffs53 (42–63)53 (36–70)53 (36–70)51 (39–64)60 (16–103)
Estimated systemic nicotine intakea, mg2.6 (1.1–4.0)3.6 (1.1–6.2)1.3 (0.4–2.2)1.8 (1.1–2.6)5.4 (−6.6 to 17.4)
COHb boostb, %6.1 (4.3–7.9)6.5 (3.3–9.6)5.7 (2.9–8.4)6.2 (4.0–8.3)5.9 (−4.2 to 16.0)
Expired CO baseline, ppm1.5 (1.0–2.0)1.6 (0.9–2.4)1.4 (0.6–2.1)1.5 (1.0–2.1)1.3 (−0.1 to 2.8)
Expired CO boost, ppm38.2 (25.1–51.3)38.1 (18.2–58.0)38.3 (15.8–60.7)33.5 (19.6–47.4)58 (−0.6 to 117.9)
Expired CO AUC 0–8 h, ppm·min9,204 (6,147–12,262)9,760 (4,485–15,034)8,649 (4,067–13,231)7,735 (4,899–10,571)15,570 (−125 to 31,266)
Nicotine boosta, ng/mL11.7 (6.0–17.4)15.1 (4.4–25.7)7.8 (2.9–12.8)8.4 (4.9–12.0)24.8 (−14.9 to 64.6)
Nicotine AUC 0–24 ha, min × ng/mL2,142 (919–3,366)2,994 (717–5,270)1,170 (417–1,923)1,541 (894–2,188)4,548 (−5,874 to 14,970)
NNAL baseline, pmol/mg creatinine × 10−312.8 (−0.30 to 25.9)18.3 (−9.6 to 46.2)7.3 (−1.5 to 16.0)5.0 (0.1–9.9)46 (−66 to 159)
NNAL boost, pmol/mg creatinine × 10−334.8 (15.9–53.7)46.6 (10.0–83.1)23.0 (5.1–40.9)24.3 (12.8–35.8)80 (−64 to 225)
NNAL CMax/BL78 (−18 to 174)58 (−57 to 173)99 (−87 to 285)96 (−23 to 215)3.0 (0.1–5.9)
2NP baselinec, pmol/mg creatinine22.4 (14.1–30.6)16.2 (9.7–22.6)27.8 (12.6–43.0)22.9 (12.2–33.5)20.3 (15.5–25.1)
2NP boostc, pmol/mg creatinine22.3 (5.0–39.5)26.0 (5.7–46.2)19.0 (−13.4 to 51.4)11.0 (0.9–21.0)67.5 (−31–0 to 166.0)
2NP CMax/BLc2.6 (1.1–4.1)3.2 (0.1–6.3)2.1 (0.4–3.8)2.2 (0.5–3.9)4.4 (−0.6 to 9.4)
2FL baselinec, pmol/mg creatinine1.0 (0.7–1.3)1.1 (0.3–1.8)0.9 (0.8–1.1)0.9 (0.7–1.0)1.5 (−1.5 to 4.5)
2FL boostc, pmol/mg creatinine0.8 (0.2–1.5)0.8 (0.3–1.3)0.9 (−0.4 to 2.2)0.5 (0.2–0.7)2.4 (−2.8 to 7.5)
2FL CMax/BLc1.9 (1.2–2.6)1.8 (1.4–2.2)2.0 (0.5–3.5)1.5 (1.2–1.8)3.3 (−3.1 to 9.7)
1HP baselinec, pmol/mg creatinine0.5 (0.4–0.6)0.3 (0.2–0.4)0.7 (0.5–0.9)0.5 (0.4–0.7)0.4 (0.0–0.8)
1HP boostc, pmol/mg creatinine0.2 (0.1–0.4)0.3 (0.0–0.6)0.2 (0.0–0.3)0.2 (0.0–0.3)0.5 (0.2–0.8)
1HP CMax/BLc1.6 (1.1–2.0)2.0 (1.1–2.9)1.2 (0.9–1.5)1.3 (1.0–1.7)2.4 (0.0–4.8)
SumPhen baselinec, pmol/mg creatinine1.5 (1.2–1.8)1.4 (0.9–1.8)1.7 (1.1–2.2)1.5 (1.1–2.0)1.4 (0.9–1.8)
SumPhen boostc, pmol/mg creatinine1.5 (0.6–2.4)1.7 (0.4–3.1)1.3 (−0.3 to 2.9)1.4 (0.2–2.6)1.8 (1.0–2.6)
SumPhen CMax/BLc2.1 (1.6–2.6)2.4 (1.5–3.3)1.8 (1.1–2.5)2.0 (1.4–2.7)2.3 (1.5–3.2)

NOTE: Values are presented as arithmetic mean (95% CI). Significant differences are given in bold.

Abbreviations: 2NP, 2-naphthol; 2FL, 2-hydroxyfluorene; 1-HP, 1-hydroxypyrene; SumPhen, sum of hydroxyphenanthrenes.

  • aSubject 9 (a female, not cigarette smoker) was excluded (missing data).

  • bSubject 2 (a female, not cigarette smoker) was excluded (missing data).

  • cSubject 12 (a male, not cigarette smoker) was excluded (out of range data).