Table 1.

Cataract association with selected participant characteristics among controls

Cataract
CharacteristicsYesNoOR (95% CI)aPa
No. of participants (%)182 (17)919 (83)
Age, y
 <6547 (6)751 (94)1.0<0.0001
 65–7576 (38)126 (62)4.4 (2.7–7.2)
 >7559 (58)42 (42)8.6 (4.7–16.4)
Ethnicity
 Caucasian72 (19)311 (81)1.00.22
 Asian82 (17)393 (83)0.6 (0.4–1.1)
 Mixed/other28 (12)215 (88)0.8 (0.4–1.5)
Education, y
 ≤1268 (21)250 (79)1.00.34
 >12114 (15)669 (85)1.1 (0.9–1.5)
BMI, kg/m2
 <25114 (18)537 (82)1.00.12
 ≥2568 (15)382 (85)0.7 (0.5–1.1)
Parity
 Nulliparous23 (13)158 (87)1.00.88
 1–263 (14)400 (86)1.2 (0.6–2.2)
 ≥396 (21)361 (79)1.1 (0.6–1.9)
Use of contraceptive steroids
 Never129 (30)300 (70)1.0
 <1 y17 (12)130 (88)1.4 (0.7–2.8)0.36
 1–4 y16 (6)239 (94)0.5 (0.3–1.1)0.06
 5–9 y13 (8)142 (92)0.9 (0.5–2.1)0.91
 10+ y7 (6)108 (94)0.8 (0.3–2.0)0.60
 Per year of use0.99 (0.94–1.06)0.80
Use of menopausal hormones
 Never80 (28)208 (72)1.00.46
 Estrogen only46 (35)87 (65)1.4 (0.8–2.3)
 Estrogen and progestin51 (20)198 (80)1.1 (0.6–1.6)
Smoking
 never117 (18)539 (82)1.00.99
 Past or current65 (15)380 (85)1.1 (0.7–1.5)
Alcohol consumption
 No120 (18)544 (82)1.00.78
 Yes62 (14)375 (86)1.1 (0.7–1.7)
Type 2 diabetes
 No152 (15)854 (85)1.00.04
 Yes30 (32)65 (68)1.9 (1.1–3.4)
Thyroid disease
 No139 (15)791 (85)1.00.61
 Yes43 (25)128 (75)1.1 (0.7–1.8)
Skin carcinoma
 No151 (15)876 (85)1.00.03
 Yes31 (42)43 (58)2.1 (1.1–4.0)

Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index.

  • aORs, 95% CIs, and P values from multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for age (continuous), ethnicity, center, education, BMI, menopausal status, use of contraceptive and menopausal hormones, alcohol consumption, smoking, and history of thyroid disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.