Table 2.

Association of inflammation and histologic features with clinical characteristics in the Swedish Watchful Waiting Cohort (n = 615)

Overall, n (%)Frequency of clinical characteristics according to case–control status, n (%)Frequency of patients positive for feature according to clinical tumor characteristics, n (%)
Indolent PCa controls n = 228Lethal PCa cases, n = 387Acute inflammation.Moderate/severe chronic inflammationSimple atrophyPAHSACFPartial atrophyPIN
Age at diagnosis, mean (SD)a73.0 (6.6)71.9 (6.3)74.9 (6.7)73.1 (6.4)72.8 (6.6)73.3 (6.5)71.9 (6.9)728 (6.8)72.1 (6.2)72.6 (6.7)
P < 0.0001P = 0.96P = 0.66P = 0.27P = 0.03P = 0.87P = 0.63P = 0.55
Calendar year of diagnosisb
 1977–198222 (3.6)13 (3.4)9 (3.9)4 (18.2)8 (36.4)12 (54.6)3 (13.6)6 (27.3)2 (9.1)1 (4.6)
 1982–198639 (6.3)27 (7.0)12 (5.2)8 (20.5)13 (33.3)28 (71.8)6 (15.4)4 (10.3)3 (7.7)2 (5.1)
 1987–1991258 (42.0)142 (36.9)116 (50.4)32 (12.4)65 (25.2)150 (58.1)63 (24.4)14 (5.4)2 (0.8)34 (13.2)
 1992–1999296 (48.1)203 (52.7)93 (40.3)40 (13.5)72 (24.3)175 (59.1)53 (17.9)14 (4.7)4 (1.4)43 (14.5)
P = 0.01P = 0.52P = 0.42P = 0.41P = 0.18P = 0.0002P = 0.001P = 0.25
Tumor stagea
 T1a252 (41.0)195 (50.8)57 (24.8)32 (12.7)57 (22.6)156 (61.9)49 (19.4)14 (5.6)6 (2.4)18 (7.4)
 T1b362 (59.0)189 (49.2)173 (75.2)51 (14.1)101 (27.9)209 (57.7)75 (20.7)24 (6.6)5 (1.4)61 (16.9)
P < 0.0001P = 0.62P = 0.14P = 0.30P = 0.70P = 0.59P = 0.37cP = 0.0004
Gleason scored
 2–6288 (46.8)240 (62.3)48 (20.8)48 (16.7)71 (24.7)179 (62.2)53 (18.4)22 (7.6)8 (2.8)18 (6.3)
 3 + 4121 (19.7)84 (21.8)37 (16.1)17 (14.1)31 (25.6)71 (58.7)31 (25.6)2 (1.7)3 (2.5)20 (16.5)
 4 + 386 (14.0)41 (10.7)45 (19.6)11 (12.8)28 (32.6)49 (57.0)19 (22.1)8 (9.3)0 (0.0)19 (22.1)
 8–10120 (19.5)20 (5.2)100 (43.5)8 (6.7)28 (23.2)66 (55.0)22 (18.3)6 (5.0)0 (0.0)23 (19.7)
P < 0.0001P = 0.009P = 0.80P = 0.15P = 0.85P = 0.54NSP < 0.0001
Tumor percentd
 Q1: ≤2201 (35.7)164 (45.9)37 (18.0)29 (14.4)48 (23.9)132 (65.7)34 (16.9)12 (6.0)4 (2.0)19 (9.5)
 Q2: >2–≤10152 (27.0)98 (27.5)54 (26.2)21 (13.8)42 (27.6)93 (61.2)37 (24.3)14 (9.2)4 (2.6)16 (10.5)
 Q3: >10–≤60158 (28.1)79 (22.1)79 (38.4)17 (10.8)42 (26.6)87 (55.1)34 (21.5)9 (5.7)3 (1.9)26 (16.5)
 Q4: >6052 (9.2)16 (4.5)36 (17.5)6 (11.5)13 (25.0)26 (50.0)8 (15.4)2 (3.9)0 (0.0)15 (28.9)
P < 0.0001P = 0.32P = 0.68P = 0.01P = 0.69P = 0.61NSP = 0.0004

Abbreviation: NS, not significant.

  • aP value from a t test.

  • bP value from a χ2 test.

  • cDue to small cell counts, P values were estimated from a Fisher's exact test.

  • dP value from a χ2 test of trend.