Table 5.

Associations between 10-year specialty supplement use and risk of hematologic malignancies

10-y average daily use prior to baselineaCases, n (%)Noncases, n (%)Age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI)Multivariable adjusted HR (95% CI)b
Glucosamine
 None458 (77.9)52,245 (79.9)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Low use85 (14.5)8,470 (13.0)1.16 (0.92–1.47)1.12 (0.87–1.43)
 High use45 (7.7)4,700 (7.2)1.00 (0.74–1.36)0.96 (0.69–1.33)
Ptrend0.5460.871
Chondroitin
 None493 (83.8)56,662 (86.6)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Low use65 (11.1)5,716 (8.7)1.30 (1.00–1.68)1.21 (0.92–1.60)
 High use30 (5.1)3,082 (4.7)1.01 (0.70–1.47)0.99 (0.67–1.46)
Ptrend0.2860.540
Ginsengc
 None549 (93.7)59,922 (91.6)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Ever use37 (6.3)5,507 (8.4)0.83 (0.60–1.16)0.79 (0.55–1.12)
Pdifference0.2800.186
Grape seedc
 None560 (95.2)60,511 (92.4)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Ever use28 (4.8)4,991 (7.6)0.68 (0.47–1.00)0.57 (0.37–0.88)
Pdifference0.0470.010
Ginko bilobac
 None514 (87.9)56,342 (86.2)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Low use40 (6.8)5,914 (9.0)0.82 (0.59–1.13)0.77 (0.55–1.09)
 High use31 (5.3)3,134 (4.8)1.05 (0.73–1.51)0.94 (0.63–1.41)
Ptrend0.7170.342
Garlicc
 None523 (89.4)57,738 (88.3)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Low use38 (6.5)4,156 (6.4)1.06 (0.76–1.47)1.07 (0.76–1.51)
 High use24 (4.1)3,501 (5.4)0.65 (0.43–0.98)0.55 (0.34–0.87)
Ptrend0.0840.028
Fish oil
 None538 (91.7)59,063 (90.3)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Low use30 (5.1)3,608 (5.5)1.00 (0.69–1.44)0.92 (0.62–1.36)
 High use19 (3.2)2,763 (4.2)0.71 (0.45–1.12)0.66 (0.40–1.08)
Ptrend0.1780.098
  • aSpecialty supplement use was categorized as never use (“none”), low use (use for <4 days per week or <3 years), high use (use for at least 4 days per week and at least 3 years), or ever use.

  • bAll models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, self-reported health, consumption of fruits and vegetables (without potatoes), history of coronary artery disease, history of rheumatoid arthritis, history of fatigue/lack of energy, and family history of leukemia/lymphoma. The models for glucosamine and chondroitin were additionally adjusted for history of nonrheumatoid arthritis or chronic neck/back/joint pain.

  • cFrom single supplements (and mixtures other than multivitamins) plus multivitamins; those with only multivitamin source coded as “low” 10-year average use.