Table 1.

Clinicopathologic characteristics of cases in the training (n = 43) and validation cohorts (V1: n = 210; V2: n = 113)

Training cohort (n = 43)Validation-1 cohort (n = 210)Validation-2 cohort (n = 113)
No. of patients22211011092687
Sex, no. of patients0.310a0.782a0.252a
Age, y<0.001<0.001<0.001
 Mean (SD)62 (12)40 (13)64 (11)42 (14)63 (12)43 (16)
Tumor locationNANANA
Clinical stageNANANA
 Median, U/mL14.75.50.01041.6<0.0019.410.20.680
 >37.0 (ULN), no. of patients6239524
 Median, ng/mL3.51.70.00211.87.60.0012.61.70.008
 >5.0 (ULN), no. of patients9124545
Total bilirubin
 Median, mg/dL0.40.50.1140.40.5<0.0010.40.5<0.001
 >1.2 (ULN), no. of patients001304
 Mass spectrometry peak intensityb, mean (SD)320 (375)96 (78)<0.001c
 Protein intensityd, mean (SD)3.91 (0.06)3.82 (0.13)<0.001e3.57 (0.14)3.42 (0.20)<0.001e

NOTE: Wilcoxon test was applied to assess differences between values.

Abbreviations: NA, not applicable; ULN, upper limit of normal.

  • aCalculated by Fisher's exact test.

  • bIntensity of the corresponding peak as measured using quantitative mass spectrometry.

  • cCalculated using Mann–Whitney U test.

  • dMeasured using reverse-phase protein microarray (logarithmic variable).

  • eCalculated using Welch's t-test.