Table 1.

Examples of commonly used measures of quality of life in cancer patients

Measure nameAbbreviationDomains assessedFormatNumber of itemsValidation sample(s)
General measures
 EuroQol (24)EuroQol-5DSubscales: mobility, self-care, usual activity, pain, anxiety/depression; overall health stateSelf-report, observer, proxy interview5 items in Likert scale format plus a visual analog scaleGeneral European populations, medical patients
 Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (43)SF-36Subscales: physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, mental health; composite scores: physical, mentalSelf-report36 items in yes/no or Likert scale formatGeneral US populations, medical patients
 Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 (8)SF-12Subscales: physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, mental health; composite scores: physical, mentalSelf-report12 items in yes/no or Likert scale formatGeneral US populations, medical patients
 Quality of Life Index (21)QLITotal scorePhysician report5 items in Likert scale formatCancer patients
 World Health Organization Qualityof Life Assessment Instrument (1)WHOQOL- 100Subscales: physical, psychological, level of independence, social relationships, environment, spirituality/religion/personal beliefs; overall QOLSelf-report100 items in Likert scale formatWorld population, medical patients, cancer patients
 World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument-Brief (5)WHOQOL- BREFSubscales: physical, psychological, social relationships, environment; overall QOLSelf-report26 items in Likert scale formatWorld population, medical patients
 Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Systema (33, 34)PROMISExamples of item banks: global health scale, physical function, emotional distress, social healthSelf-reportItem bank, short form, computer adaptive testing availableGeneral US population, patients with chronic medical conditions
Cancer-specific measures
 Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System-Short Form (44)CARES-SF, CIPSubscales: physical, psychosocial, sexual, marital, medical interaction; global QOLSelf-report139 items in Likert scale formatPatients with heterogeneous cancer diagnoses
 European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (11)EORTC QLQ-C30Functioning scales: physical, social, role, cognitive, emotional; symptom scales: fatigue, pain, nausea/vomiting; global health/QOL scaleSelf-report30 items in yes/no or Likert scale formatPatients with heterogeneous cancer diagnoses
 Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (9)FACT-GSubscales: physical, functional, social, emotional, relationship with doctor; total scoreSelf-report28 items in Likert scale formatPatients with heterogeneous cancer diagnoses
 Functional Living Index-Cancer (22)FLICSubscales: physical, psychological, social, current well-being, gastrointestinal symptoms; total scoreSelf-report22 items in visual analog scale formatPatients with heterogeneous cancer diagnoses
Measures for cancer subpopulations
 FACT modulesb (9)VariousExamples of modules: breast cancer, blood and marrow transplant, lung cancer, prostate cancerSelf-reportFACT-G plus subpopulation- specific items in Likert-scale formatVarious subpopulations
 EORTC modulesc (11)VariousExamples of modules: ovarian cancer, gastric cancer, brain cancerSelf-reportEORTC QLQ-C30 plus subpopulation-specific items in Likert scale formatVarious subpopulations
 Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (45)EPICSubscales: urinary incontinence, urinary irritative/obstructive, sexual, bowel, hormonal symptomsSelf-report26-item short form in Likert-scale format; other versions include SF-12Prostate cancer patients
 Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (46)LCSSSelf-report subscales: symptoms, total symptomatic distress, activity status, overall QOL; observer subscale: symptomsSelf-report, observerSelf-report: 9 items in visual analog scale; observer: 6 items in Likert scale formatLung cancer patients
 Therapy Impact Questionnaire (47)TIQSubscales: physical symptoms, functional status, concomitant emotional and cognitive factors, social interactionSelf-report36 items in Likert scale formatAdvanced cancer patients
 Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (15)QLACSGeneric subscales: physical pain, negative feelings, positive feelings, cognitive problems, sexual problems, social avoidance, fatigue; Cancer-specific subscales: financial problems, distress about family, distress about recurrence, appearance concerns, benefits of cancer; generic summary score; cancer-specific summary scoreSelf-report47 items in Likert scale formatBreast cancer survivors
 Quality of Life at the End of Life (48)QUAL-ECSubscales: symptom severity, quality of relationship with healthcare provider, preparation for end of life, feeling of life completionSelf-report54 items in Likert scale formatMedical patients at end of life, cancer patients at end of life