Table 2.

Selected baseline characteristics (medians or percents) of the 1,000 controls by quintilea of fasting serum 25(OH)D, the ATBC Study

CharacteristicQuintile 1Quintile 2Quintile 3Quintile 4Quintile 5
Age, y58.057.057.058.058.0
Height, cm173.0173.0173.0174.0173.0
Weight, kg76.176.277.878.877.1
BMI, kg/m225.725.326.026.125.9
Cigarettes per day2020202020
No. of years of smoking38.037.036.036.037.0
History of diabetes, %2.03.56.52.05.0
History of BPH, %5.03.54.04.53.0
Family history of prostate cancer,b %2.53.02.05.51.5
Leisure activity, moderate and heavy, %50.851.564.563.565.3
Vitamin D supplement use, %2.55.06.07.511.6
Calcium supplement use, %6.58.012.511.015.6
Energy intake,c kcal/d2,6482,8292,6532,7002,504
Dietary vitamin D intake,c μg/d3.74.44.65.25.9
Dietary calcium intake,c mg/d1,4461,4091,3571,4041,347
Dietary fat intake,c g/d119124118124111
Fruit consumption,c g/d10098120124123
Vegetable consumption,c g/d8794103104117
Ethanol consumption,c g/d7.76.98.69.711.9
Serum α-tocopherol, mg/L11.311.611.512.011.7
Serum retinol, μg/L544552583580592
Serum β-carotene, μg/L180186168190192
Serum total cholesterol, mmol/L6.456.326.256.335.98
Serum 25(OH) vitamin D, nmol/L14.222.631.243.963.6

Abbreviation: BPH, benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  • aCutoff points for season-specific quintiles were Q1 ≤16.3, Q2 >16.3 and ≤23.8, Q3 >23.8 and ≤33.3, Q4 >33.3 and ≤45.6, Q5 >45.6 nmol/L for the less sunny months; Q1 ≤25.9, Q2 >25.9 and ≤35.7, Q3 >35.7 and ≤48.3, Q4 >48.3 and ≤59.9, Q5 >59.9 nmol/L for sunnier months.

  • bFamily history data available for 76% of cases and controls.

  • cDietary data available for 93% of cases and controls