Table 4.

Association between serum 25(OH)D and risk of prostate cancer, stratified by selected baseline and clinical characteristics, the ATBC Study

QuintilesaPtrend
12345
Total vitamin D intake (diet + supplements)b
Low (<5.0 μg/d)
 Cases/controls, n121/137107/10388/9987/8260/56
  ORc (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.22 (0.84–1.78)1.04 (0.71–1.54)1.28 (0.86–1.91)1.24 (0.79–1.95)0.30
High (≥5.0 μg/d)
 Cases/controls, n41/5284/86108/94106/112153/132
  ORc (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.34 (0.80–2.26)1.65 (1.00–2.75)1.32 (0.80–2.18)1.69 (1.04–2.75)0.08
Pinteraction0.57
Total calcium intake (diet + supplements)b
Low (<1,338 mg)
 Cases/controls, n82/8098/91102/10687/98107/102
  ORc (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.09 (0.71–1.67)0.99 (0.65–1.51)0.93 (0.60–1.43)1.15 (0.75–1.75)0.77
High (≥1,338 mg)
 Cases/controls, n80/10993/9894/87106/96106/86
  ORc (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.40 (0.92–2.12)1.65 (1.08–2.52)1.60 (1.06–2.42)1.82 (1.20–2.76)0.01
Pinteraction0.06
Leisure activity
Sedentary
 Cases/controls, n94/99100/9782/7154/7365/69
  ORc (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.21 (0.80–1.82)1.35 (0.87–2.10)0.79 (0.50–1.27)1.12 (0.71–1.78)0.81
Moderate/heavy
 Cases/controls, n74/102101/103126/129143/127160/130
  ORc (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.42 (0.94–2.15)1.44 (0.97–2.14)1.67 (1.13–2.46)1.85 (1.26–2.72)0.002
Pinteraction0.03
Season of blood collection
Less sunny months (November–April)
 Cases/controls, n120/98120/115119/131120/130119/125
  ORd (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.24 (0.83–1.86)1.42 (0.96–2.10)1.46 (0.97–2.21)1.42 (0.95–2.12)0.07
Sunnier months (May–October)
 Cases/controls, n81/7080/8681/7780/6780/100
  ORd (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.20 (0.72–1.98)1.18 (0.72–1.94)1.01 (0.60–1.69)1.70 (1.01–2.85)0.12
Pinteraction0.78
Vitamin E supplementation
No
 Cases/controls, n90/94112/100116/9591/100118/108
  ORc (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.29 (0.86–1.94)1.49 (0.99–2.24)1.05 (0.69–1.59)1.29 (0.86–1.93)0.56
Yes
 Cases/controls, n78/10789/10092/105106/100107/91
  ORc (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.29 (0.85–1.95)1.23 (0.82–1.86)1.54 (1.02–2.32)1.74 (1.15–2.64)0.006
Pinteraction0.12
Serum α-tocopherol
Low (<11.6 mg/L)
 Cases/controls, n104/107111/103114/10491/89105/98
  ORc (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.19 (0.80–1.76)1.25 (0.84–1.85)1.17 (0.78–1.77)1.23 (0.82–1.84)0.38
High (≥11.6 mg/L)
 Cases/controls, n64/9490/9794/96106/111120/101
  ORc (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.51 (0.97–2.34)1.63 (1.05–2.52)1.45 (0.95–2.23)2.00 (1.30–3.07)0.01
Pinteraction0.15
Serum retinol
Low (<570 μg/L)
 Cases/controls, n81/12095/11291/9381/9393/83
  ORc (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.39 (0.93–2.09)1.67 (1.10–2.54)1.43 (0.93–2.19)1.80 (1.18–2.75)0.01
High (≥570 μg/L)
 Cases/controls, n87/81106/88117/107116/107132/116
  ORc (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.19 (0.78–1.81)1.10 (0.73–1.65)1.09 (0.72–1.64)1.22 (0.81–1.82)0.51
Pinteraction0.22
Serum total cholesterol
Low (<6.27 mmol/L)
 Cases/controls, n95/91105/97112/10099/97124/116
  ORc (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.08 (0.72–1.62)1.14 (0.76–1.70)1.03 (0.69–1.56)1.12 (0.75–1.66)0.69
High (≥6.27 mmol/L)
 Cases/controls, n73/11096/10396/10098/103101/83
  ORc (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.53 (1.01–2.32)1.61 (1.06–2.45)1.56 (1.03–2.38)2.09 (1.36–3.21)0.003
Pinteraction0.07
Case stage/Gleason scoree
Nonaggressive
 Cases/controls, n57/6177/8880/6878/8652/81
  ORd (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.99 (0.59–1.65)1.34 (0.81–2.23)1.00 (0.60–1.66)1.31 (0.81–2.13)0.29
Aggressive
 Cases/controls, n84/10381/7984/8582/7190/84
  ORd (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.28 (0.82–2.01)1.34 (0.85–2.09)1.59 (0.98–2.60)1.70 (1.05–2.76)0.02
Pinteraction0.43
Follow-up period
<10 y
 Cases/controls, n61/7565/6267/5764/6665/63
  ORd (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.16 (0.69–1.96)1.42 (0.84–2.39)1.06 (0.60–1.88)1.51 (0.86–2.63)0.21
≥10 y
 Cases/controls, n107/126136/138141/143133/134160/136
  ORd (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.27 (0.88–1.85)1.30 (0.90–1.88)1.30 (0.89–1.89)1.59 (1.09–2.31)0.03
Pinteraction0.67
  • aCutoff points for season-specific quintiles were Q1 ≤16.3, Q2 >16.3 and ≤23.8, Q3 >23.8 and ≤33.3, Q4 >33.3 and ≤45.6, Q5 >45.6 nmol/L for the less sunny months; Q1 ≤25.9, Q2 >25.9 and ≤35.7, Q3 >35.7 and ≤48.3, Q4 >48.3 and ≤59.9, Q5 >59.9 nmol/L for sunnier months.

  • bDietary data available for 1,909 subjects.

  • cORs based on unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for age, season of blood draw, family history of prostate cancer, and serum α-tocopherol.

  • dORs based on conditional logistic regression, conditioned on the matching factors and adjusted for age, family history of prostate cancer, and serum α-tocopherol.

  • eData for disease stage and Gleason score were available for 636 cases.