Table 1.

Selected baseline characteristics of prostate cancer cases and controls, the ATBC Study

CharacteristicMedian (25%–75%) or %
Cases (n = 1,000)Controls (n = 1,000)
Age, y57.0 (54.0–62.0)57.0 (54.0–62.0)
Height, cm174.0 (170.0–178.0)173.0 (169.0–177.0)
Weight, kg77.9 (70.9–86.9)77.3 (70.0–85.3)
BMI, kg/m226.0 (23.9–28.5)25.8 (23.6–28.2)
Cigarettes per day20.0 (15.0–25.0)20.0 (15.0–25.0)
Years of smoking36.5 (30.0–42.0)37.0 (31.0–42.0)
History of BPH, %5.24.0
History of diabetes, %2.33.8
Family history of prostate cancer,a %5.22.9b
Leisure activity, moderate and heavy (%)60.459.1
Vitamin D supplement use, %7.86.5
Calcium supplement use, %11.610.7
Energy intake,c kcal/d2,612 (2,178–3,156)2,636 (2,156–3,090)
Dietary vitamin D intake,c μg/d4.7 (3.2–6.8)4.7 (3.4–6.5)
Dietary calcium intake,c mg/d1,335 (1,003–1,725)1,335 (989–1,708)
Dietary fat intake,c g/d118 (96–147)119 (95–146)
Ethanol consumption,c g/d10.7 (2.3–24.3)9.2 (1.7–22.9)
Serum α-tocopherol, mg/L11.4 (9.8–13.4)11.6 (10.1–13.6)d
Serum retinol, μg/L589 (513–671)570 (499–662)d
Serum β-carotene, μg/L180 (121–270)184 (123–286)
Serum total cholesterol, mmol/L6.21 (5.43–6.93)6.27 (5.53–7.07)
Serum 25(OH) vitamin D, nmol/L34.5 (22.7–50.0)33.6 (21.4–49.1)

Abbreviation: BPH, benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  • aFamily history data available for 76% of cases and controls.

  • bP ≤ 0.01 by χ2 test. All statistical tests are 2-sided.

  • cDietary data available for 93% of cases and controls.

  • dP ≤ 0.05 by Wilcoxon rank-sum test.