Table 2

Risk implications for major forms of cancer by consumption of major food groups, macronutrient intake, exposure to selected nonnutrients, and nutrition-related indicatorsa

Oral cavityNasopharynxEsophagusStomachLarge bowelLiverPancreasLarynxLungBreastEndometriumCervix uteriProstateUrinary bladderKidney
Major food groups
VegetablesReduce Reduce Reduce Reduce ReduceReduce Reduce Reduce ReduceReduceReduceReduce Reduce Reduce
Fruits Reduce Reduce Reduce ReduceReduce Reduce ReduceReduceReduceReduceReduce
Red meat Increase Increase
Protein (animal)Increase
Saturated fatIncreaseIncreaseIncreaseIncreaseIncrease
Alcohol Increase Increase Increase Increase Increase Increase
SaltIncrease Increase
Nutritional covariates
HeightIncrease Increase
ObesityIncreaseDual Increase Increase
Physical activity Reduce ReduceReduce
Hot drinksIncrease
  • a Sources: Willett and Trichopoulos (16) and World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Prevention (7) . Bold type indicates that data are convincing.