Table 4

Effect modification of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes on nonsmoking lung cancer risks attributable to environmental exposures

ExposuresaAll subjects ORb (95% CI)GSTM1*1 ORb (95% CI)GSTM1*2 ORb (95% CI)GSTT1*1 ORb (95% CI)GSTT1*2 ORb (95% CI)
ETS from
Spouse (ever)1.5 (0.8–2.6)1.7 (0.7–4.0)1.3 (0.6–3.1)2.3 (1.1–4.8)0.5 (0.1–1.9)
Spouse or workplace (ever)1.2 (0.6–2.3)1.3 (0.4–3.7)1.2 (0.5–2.7)1.7 (0.8–3.9)0.3 (0.1–1.5)
Occasional smokers (ever)1.4 (0.7–2.9)2.1 (0.7–6.2)2.1 (0.7–6.4)1.3 (0.5–3.0)3.7 (0.5–27)
Occupational carcinogens1.6 (0.6–4.0)1.2 (0.3–5.2)2.5 (0.7–9.0)2.5 (0.8–7.8) c
Residential history
Mixed rural and urban0.4 (0.2–0.9)0.6 (0.2–1.8)0.2 (0–0.6)0.3 (0.1–0.7)0.3 (0–3.0)
Urban (>75% lifetime)0.2 (0.1–0.5)0.3 (0.1–1.1)0.1 (0.2–0.4)0.1 (0–0.4)0.5 (0.1–3.3)
Indoor pollution from
Wood (>20 y)2.5 (1.0–6.2)1.8 (0.5–7.1)6.2 (1.5–25)3.0 (1.0–8.7)1.7 (0.2–17)
Coal (>17 y)0.4 (0.1–1.1)0.3 (0.1–1.3)0.4 (0.1–2.2)0.5 (0.1–1.8)0.2 (0–2.3)
  • a For reference categories, see Table 1<$REFLINK> .

  • b Adjusted for gender, age, and center.

  • c OR could not be estimated because of insufficient numbers in cells.