Table 1

Baseline characteristics by randomized group

CharacteristicaRandomized group
Placebo (n = 47)Vitamin C (n = 46)Vitamin E (n = 45)Combined (n = 46)
Age58.1 (13.8)61.2 (12.3)55.5 (14.5)57.7 (13.8)
Women (%)48.956.564.452.2
Raceb (%)
African American48.945.671.134.8
Caucasian46.852.224.458.7
Others4.32.24.46.5
Education (%)
>High school83.084.868.980.4
Body mass indexc28.9 (4.8)28.7 (5.4)28.6 (5.1)28.9 (5.9)
Regular exercised (%)53.252.262.256.5
Alcohol consumption (%)
None63.056.551.152.2
<2 drinks/day37.043.548.947.8
Hypertensione (%)45.634.853.352.2
Diabetes mellitusf (%)17.013.08.98.7
Hypercholesterolemiag (%)29.839.129.534.8
Prior supplement use (%)
Any vitamin31.932.626.730.4
Any antioxidant19.117.422.215.2
Dietary intakesh
Vitamin C (mg/day)149.8 (96.3)127.6 (69.5)129.6 (70.6)143.4 (80.0)
Vitamin E (α-TEi/day)8.8 (7.1)7.4 (4.2)8.5 (5.7)11.1 (7.7)
Fruits/vegetables (servings/day)3.8 (2.1)4.1 (1.9)3.9 (2.0)3.9 (2.2)
Serum level
Ascorbic acidj (μmol/l)62.6 (15.3)62.0 (14.7)57.0 (17.8)66.8 (13.2)
α-Tocopherol (μmol/L)28.3 (8.1)29.3 (7.7)26.6 (7.0)26.8 (7.0)
Urinary excretionk
Creatinine (mg/dl)94.6 (50.7)84.8 (42.7)96.6 (46.8)90.9 (46.6)
8-OHdG (ng/mg creatinine)17.6 (10.4)19.3 (9.3)16.5 (8.4)17.7 (9.5)
  • a Continuous data presented as mean (SD).

  • b P = 0.03 from Pearson χ2 test.

  • c Weight/height2 (kg/m2).

  • d Activity sufficient to work up a sweat, on average, at least once a week.

  • e Systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, physician-diagnosed hypertension, or on hypertension medication.

  • f Diabetes mellitus (fasting glucose level ≥126 mg/dl, physician-diagnosed diabetes, or on medication for diabetes).

  • g Low-density cholesterol ≥160 mg/dl, or on medication for hypercholesterolemia.

  • h Measured by Food Frequency Questionnaire.

  • i α-Tocopherol equivalents.

  • j P = 0.02 from Wilcoxon Rank Sum test.

  • k Sample size = 47, 43, 45, and 45 in the placebo, vitamin C alone, vitamin E alone, and combined vitamins C and E groups, because of missing data.