Table 4

Peak excretion rates and times of peak excretiona

Total genisteinb,cGenistein glucuronidesdGenistein sulfateseGenistein calculated sulfatesGenistein
Peak excretion rate (nmol/kg/h)32.0 ± 5.3 (11)28.5 ± 4.7 (11)2.4 ± 0.8 (4)5.7 ± 1.3 (10)0.2 ± 0.0 (6)
Tmax (h)f4.6 ± 0.5 (12)4.3 ± 0.5 (12)5.4 ± 1.1 (4)5.6 ± 0.7 (10)3.1 ± 0.8 (6)
Total daidzeinbDaidzein glucuronidesDaidzein sulfateseDaidzein calculated sulfatesDaidzein
Peak excretion rate (nmol/kg/h)67.9 ± 5.4 (11)57.3 ± 4.2 (11)7.3 ± 1.7 (4)12.0 ± 2.1 (11)0.4 ± 0.1 (8)
Tmax (h)f5.3 ± 0.3 (12)5.2 ± 0.4 (12)5.4 ± 1.1 (4)6.2 ± 0.3 (12)4.9 ± 1.9 (8)
Total DHDbDHD glucuronidesDHD sulfateseTotal O-DMAbO-DMA glucuronides
Peak excretion rate (nmol/kg/h)18.9 ± 5.0 (10)17.8 ± 4.6 (9)3.7 ± 1.3 (4)17.4 ± 3.9 (10)17.2 ± 3.9 (10)
Tmax (h)f10.1 ± 0.9 (11)10.2 ± 1.2 (10)9.6 ± 1.7 (4)15.1 ± 2.2 (11)14.4 ± 1.9 (11)
Total DHGbDHG glucuronidesDHG sulfateseTotal glyciteinbGlycitein glucuronidesGlycitein sulfatesc,f
Peak excretion rate (nmol/kg/h)11.9 ± 7.9 (8)10.9 ± 7.2 (8)1.0 ± 0.6 (4)9.5 ± 0.06 (11)8.3 ± 0.6 (11)0.9 ± 0.1 (4)
Tmax (h)f7.1 ± 1.1 (9)6.8 ± 1.1 (9)7.1 ± 0.1 (4)5.0 ± 0.4 (12)4.8 ± 0.4 (12)5.9 ± 1.1 (4)
  • a The number of subjects is listed in parentheses below the mean ± SE. In some cases, peak rates were below the limits of detection or could not be determined because of variability in the data. Subject 1 did not consume all of the soy; therefore, peak excretion rates were not used for that subject.

  • b Total isoflavones = isoflavones measured after sulfatase/glucuronidase digestion.

  • c For males: 3125 ± 602 (n = 5); for females: 1543 ± 328 (n = 6); P < 0.05.

  • d For males: 2820 ± 544 (n = 5); for females: 1365 ± 271 (n = 6); P < 0.05.

  • e Sulfates were measured in only 4 of the 12 subjects.

  • f Tmax is the time of peak excretion rate.