Table 6

RRsa (95% CI) for quintiles of dietary intake of carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and folate, stratified by histological type of lung cancer: Netherlands Cohort Study 1986–1992

Small cell carcinoma (157 cases)Squamous cell carcinoma (377 cases)Adenocarcinoma (143 cases)
nRR (95% CI)nRR (95% CI)nRR (95% CI)
α-Carotene
Quintile 1b471.00951.00251.00
Quintile 2230.42 (0.24–0.73)610.56 (0.38–0.82)300.98 (0.55–1.75)
Quintile 3260.55 (0.32–0.93)640.66 (0.45–0.97)301.14 (0.64–2.03)
Quintile 4360.69 (0.42–1.14)800.77 (0.53–1.12)381.41 (0.81–2.44)
Quintile 5250.59 (0.34–1.02)770.93 (0.64–1.35)200.90 (0.48–1.69)
P-trend0.170.830.63
β-Carotene
Quintile 1b411.00961.00211.00
Quintile 2310.68 (0.40–1.15)670.63 (0.44–0.93)351.53 (0.85–2.76)
Quintile 3260.63 (0.36–1.09)720.76 (0.52–1.10)291.39 (0.76–2.56)
Quintile 4320.71 (0.42–1.21)640.64 (0.43–0.94)351.72 (0.95–3.11)
Quintile 5270.69 (0.40–1.19)780.88 (0.60–1.27)231.18 (0.62–2.24)
P-trend0.170.370.49
Lutein/Zeaxanthin
Quintile 1b411.001.001.00331.00
Quintile 2391.00 (0.60–1.65)740.76 (0.53–1.10)200.63 (0.34–1.14)
Quintile 3300.80 (0.47–1.35)720.75 (0.52–1.09)300.95 (0.55–1.63)
Quintile 4200.54 (0.30–0.98)550.63 (0.42–0.93)321.12 (0.65–1.91)
Quintile 5270.64 (0.37–1.12)760.75 (0.52–1.08)280.85 (0.49–1.49)
P-trend0.0090.030.77
β-Cryptoxantin
Quintile 1b501.001181.00411.00
Quintile 2270.66 (0.39–1.12)710.71 (0.49–1.01)300.83 (0.49–1.40)
Quintile 3230.53 (0.30–0.91)580.56 (0.38–0.82)210.55 (0.31–0.97)
Quintile 4280.65 (0.38–1.11)640.62 (0.42–0.90)200.54 (0.30–0.97)
Quintile 5290.61 (0.36–1.04)660.59 (0.41–0.85)310.81 (0.48–1.36)
P-trend0.040.00020.12
Lycopene
Quintile 1b441.00861.00351.00
Quintile 2290.72 (0.42–1.22)801.00 (0.69–1.45)200.57 (0.31–1.03)
Quintile 3280.84 (0.49–1.43)721.09 (0.74–1.60)250.86 (0.49–1.51)
Quintile 4240.72 (0.41–1.27)721.10 (0.75–1.61)351.30 (0.77–2.20)
Quintile 5320.86 (0.51–1.45)670.93 (0.63–1.37)280.90 (0.52–1.56)
P-trend0.540.900.38
Vitamin Cc
Category 1b541.00991.00401.00
Category 2460.46 (0.30–0.73)1540.85 (0.62–1.16)520.68 (0.43–1.07)
Category 3570.54 (0.35–0.83)1240.65 (0.47–0.89)510.65 (0.41–1.02)
P-trend0.0030.0010.06
Vitamin E
Quintile 1b341.00751.00271.00
Quintile 2320.99 (0.58–1.70)871.21 (0.83–1.77)271.03 (0.58–1.85)
Quintile 3310.94 (0.55–1.63)771.06 (0.72–1.56)371.40 (0.81–2.42)
Quintile 4330.92 (0.53–1.57)730.96 (0.65–1.41)261.03 (0.58–1.86)
Quintile 5270.83 (0.47–1.47)650.95 (0.64–1.41)261.15 (0.64–2.08)
P-trend0.450.360.62
Folate
Quintile 1b411.001121.00421.00
Quintile 2360.88 (0.53–1.47)720.64 (0.44–0.92)270.64 (0.38–1.10)
Quintile 3310.84 (0.49–1.43)620.61 (0.42–0.90)240.63 (0.36–1.09)
Quintile 4190.40 (0.22–0.73)620.51 (0.35–0.74)270.63 (0.37–1.07)
Quintile 5300.74 (0.44–1.27)690.63 (0.44–0.91)230.59 (0.33–1.03)
P-trend0.020.00030.04
  • a Adjusted for current smoking, years of smoking cigarettes, and number of cigarettes per day, highest educational level, family history of lung cancer, and age.

  • b Reference category.

  • c Category 1, quintile 1; Category 2, quintiles 2 and 3; Category 3, quintiles 4 and 5.