Table 4

RRsa (95% CI) for quintiles of dietary intake of carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and folate for lung cancer, according to different models: Netherlands Cohort Study 1986–1992

MedianAge, family history, smoking, SESbAge, family history, smoking, SES, energyAge, family history, smoking, SES, vit C (catb), energy (contb)Age, family history, smoking, SES, folate (quintiles), energy (cont)
α-Caroteneμg/day
Quintile 1c1981.001.001.001.00
Quintile 23780.60 (0.44–0.82)0.60 (0.44–0.83)0.63 (0.45–0.87)0.63 (0.46–0.88)
Quintile 35650.69 (0.51–0.95)0.70 (0.51–0.96)0.74 (0.53–1.02)0.88 (0.57–1.09)
Quintile 48090.83 (0.61–1.13)0.85 (0.62–1.15)0.90 (0.66–1.24)0.96 (0.69–1.32)
Quintile 513000.85 (0.62–1.16)0.89 (0.65–1.23)1.01 (0.71–1.43)1.00 (0.71–1.40)
P-trend0.770.900.290.20
β-Caroteneμg/day
Quintile 1c14801.001.001.001.00
Quintile 221480.72 (0.53–0.98)0.73 (0.54–1.00)0.79 (0.57–1.09)0.83 (0.60–1.14)
Quintile 326750.79 (0.58–1.09)0.81 (0.59–1.12)0.90 (0.64–1.27)1.00 (0.72–1.39)
Quintile 433510.83 (0.61–1.13)0.86 (0.63–1.18)0.99 (0.68–1.45)1.14 (0.80–1.62)
Quintile 547290.81 (0.59–1.11)0.85 (0.63–1.18)1.02 (0.68–1.53)1.11 (0.76–1.60)
P-trend0.210.480.380.09
Lutein/Zeaxanthinμg/day
Quintile 1c13881.001.001.001.00
Quintile 218970.78 (0.57–1.06)0.78 (0.58–1.06)0.81 (0.59–1.12)0.87 (0.64–1.19)
Quintile 323760.71 (0.52–0.97)0.72 (0.53–0.99)0.81 (0.56–1.17)0.85 (0.61–1.18)
Quintile 428530.72 (0.53–0.99)0.74 (0.54–1.01)0.86 (0.57–1.29)0.97 (0.68–1.39)
Quintile 538570.72 (0.53–0.99)0.75 (0.54–1.03)0.88 (0.57–1.38)0.96 (0.65–1.43)
P-trend0.0010.0050.390.91
β-Cryptoxantinμg/day
Quintile 1c121.001.001.001.00
Quintile 2460.77 (0.57–1.04)0.78 (0.58–1.06)0.84 (0.61–1.15)0.79 (0.58–1.07)
Quintile 31030.64 (0.47–0.87)0.64 (0.47–0.88)0.73 (0.50–1.05)0.68 (0.49–0.93)
Quintile 41940.64 (0.47–0.88)0.66 (0.48–0.88)0.80 (0.49–1.30)0.72 (0.52–1.00)
Quintile 53560.71 (0.52–0.96)0.72 (0.53–0.98)0.91 (0.33–1.74)0.82 (0.59–1.13)
P-trend<0.00010.00020.220.02
Lycopeneμg/day
Quintile 1c1321.001.001.001.00
Quintile 22510.82 (0.60–1.12)0.83 (0.61–1.23)0.85 (0.62–1.17)0.87 (0.63–1.19)
Quintile 37201.01 (0.74–1.38)1.02 (0.75–1.39)1.14 (0.82–1.57)1.09 (0.79–1.49)
Quintile 410871.07 (0.79–1.47)1.07 (0.79–1.47)1.21 (0.87–1.69)1.18 (0.85–1.62)
Quintile 520350.91 (0.67–1.25)0.93 (0.67–1.27)1.12 (0.77–1.61)1.05 (0.75–1.46)
P-trend0.810.720.040.14
Vitamin Cdmg/day
Category 1c511.001.001.00
Category 2820.69 (0.53–0.90)0.70 (0.59–0.83)0.79 (0.59–1.05)
Category 31380.63 (0.49–0.83)0.64 (0.54–0.77)0.77 (0.54–1.08)
P-trend<0.0001<0.00010.03
Vitamin Emg/day
Quintile 1c71.001.001.001.00
Quintile 2101.19 (0.87–1.63)1.23 (0.90–1.69)1.31 (0.93–1.83)1.34 (0.98–1.85)
Quintile 3131.13 (0.83–1.55)1.21 (0.88–1.67)1.25 (0.90–1.74)1.31 (0.94–1.82)
Quintile 4171.01 (0.74–1.38)1.08 (0.78–1.51)1.14 (0.81–1.62)1.16 (0.83–1.64)
Quintile 5241.02 (0.74–1.41)1.15 (0.80–1.65)1.21 (0.83–1.76)1.29 (0.88–1.89)
P-trend0.620.640.420.24
Folateμg/day
Quintile 1c2121.001.001.00
Quintile 22590.71 (0.52–0.96)0.70 (0.52–0.96)0.77 (0.52–1.14)
Quintile 32950.75 (0.55–1.02)0.74 (0.54–1.03)0.86 (0.51–1.44)
Quintile 43310.49 (0.36–0.68)0.49 (0.35–0.68)0.58 (0.32–1.05)
Quintile 54000.70 (0.51–0.95)0.69 (0.47–0.99)0.83 (0.39–1.75)
P-trend<0.0001<0.00010.03
Vitamin C supplement use
Noc1.001.001.001.00
Yes0.90 (0.61–1.33)0.90 (0.61–1.33)0.92 (0.61–1.38)0.93 (0.63–1.38)
P-trend0.450.440.540.63
Vitamin E supplement use
Noc1.001.001.001.00
Yes1.13 (0.68–1.88)1.13 (0.68–1.87)1.10 (0.65–1.87)1.16 (0.70–1.93)
P-trend0.480.480.590.40
  • a Adjusted for current smoking, years of smoking cigarettes, number of cigarettes per day, highest educational level, family history of lung cancer, and age.

  • b SES, socioeconomic status; cat, categories; cont, continuous.

  • c Reference category.

  • d Category 1, quintile 1; Category 2, quintiles 2 and 3; Category 3, quintiles 4 and 5.