Table 2

Mean dietary intake of carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and folate for several characteristics in the subcohort (n = 1525): Netherlands Cohort Study 1986–1992

nα-Carotenea μg/dayβ-Carotenea μg/dayLutein + Zeaxanthina μg/dayβ-Cryptoxanthina μg/dayLycopenea μg/dayVitamin Ca mg/dayVitamin Ea mg/dayFolatea μg/day
Age (yr)
55–59582713 (595)3037 (1625)2576 (1105)140 (149)992 (1171)95 (40)14.8 (6.9)307 (83)
60–64534689 (544)2972 (1561)2536 (1155)152 (161)1167 (2063)98 (41)14.9 (6.6)303 (79)
65–69409663 (507)2896 (1440)2546 (1204)170 (173)979 (1244)102 (44)14.2 (6.3)296 (77)
Smoking status
Never204823 (711)3264 (1936)2581 (1225)173 (164)1135 (1492)103 (43)14.7 (6.6)312 (88)
Former smoker778694 (555)2991 (1541)2568 (1114)154 (162)1073 (1723)100 (42)14.9 (6.6)305 (79)
Current smoker543639 (476)2847 (1393)2525 (1171)141 (156)985 (1320)94 (41)14.3 (6.7)296 (77)
Highest educational levelb
Primary school393699 (583)2997 (1722)2581 (1323)133 (164)938 (1490)92 (43)14.2 (6.2)299 (86)
Lower vocational321687 (483)2960 (1446)2571 (1192)140 (137)938 (1323)96 (41)15.6 (7.1)311 (84)
Secondary/medium vocational530684 (607)2964 (1600)2571 (1104)170 (170)1093 (1780)103 (43)14.7 (6.5)303 (78)
University/higher vocational271707 (481)3006 (1328)2464 (900)159 (159)1256 (1442)101 (39)14.3 (6.7)299 (69)
Family history of lung cancer
No138696 (566)2984 (1557)2550 (1124)151 (159)1052 (1580)98 (42)14.7 (6.7)303 (79)
Yes141648 (431)2896 (1537)2590 (1379)161 (169)1025 (1351)97 (42)14.2 (5.9)300 (87)
  • a Mean (SD).

  • b Totals do not add to 1525 because of missing values.