Table 5

Biologic measures of adherence and of change between baseline and follow-up: intervention and control groups

Biologic measuresInterventionControlPa
Baseline mean (SD)Average over follow-up mean (SD)Baseline mean (SD)Average over follow-up mean (SD)
Plasma carotenoids (μg/dl)
Total carotenoidsb56.7 (40.5)69.2 (39.0)50.9 (24.5)49.3 (22.2)<0.001
α-Carotene6.9 (8.5)10.6 (8.9)5.8 (4.2)5.8 (4.4)<0.001
β-Carotene22.0 (24.1)27.5 (24.1)19.0 (14.7)17.4 (12.7)<0.001
β-Cryptoxanthin7.8 (4.9)9.6 (5.0)7.6 (5.1)7.9 (4.1)<0.001
Lutein19.3 (7.6)21.5 (8.1)18.6 (6.6)18.0 (6.3)<0.001
Lycopene40.8 (15.2)41.0 (14.4)39.4 (17.6)36.7 (11.6)0.014
Serum lipids (mg/dl)
Total cholesterol217.2 (39.8)214.3 (36.0)218.6 (35.1)220.5 (31.3)0.05
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol149.7 (35.4)146.2 (33.1)150.2 (32.0)152.7 (29.1)0.02
HDL cholesterol42.4 (13.8)40.6 (12.9)43.2 (14.6)41.7 (13.7)0.34
Triglycerides129.6 (68.0)144.2 (99.7)125.6 (64.1)131.3 (63.9)0.24
Blood pressure (mm Hg)
Systolic127.7 (17.0)126.1 (15.7)127.8 (17.2)127.2 (17.9)0.37
Diastolic76.0 (8.3)75.3 (7.1)76.9 (9.3)75.8 (8.6)0.90
Other
Body mass index (kg/m2)27.7 (3.8)27.5 (3.7)27.8 (3.8)27.9 (3.9)0.19
Body weight (pounds)183.5 (33.9)184.1 (33.2)183.1 (32.3)183.9 (32.6)0.57
Plasma glucose (mg/dl)99.0 (14.2)100.9 (17.7)101.1 (12.0)101.9 (14.3)0.55
Urinary potassium (meq/8 h)16.6 (7.0)18.9 (7.4)16.1 (7.2)16.1 (6.0)<0.001
Urinary sodium (meq/8 h)55.8 (22.1)54.7 (18.1)55.9 (24.3)54.7 (18.4)0.74
Bowel movements (No./wk)9.2 (4.2)10.0 (4.5)9.0 (3.4)8.6 (2.9)0.003
  • a P calculated for intervention versus control group for the change (average over follow-up minus baseline) for each variable with sex and baseline levels of the variable in the model.

  • b Total carotenoids include the sum ofα -carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lutein (see“ Subjects and Methods”).