Table 4

Mean daily nutrient intake at baseline and average over follow-up for the intervention and control groups

Nutrients/dayaInterventionControlPd
Baselineb mean (SD)Average over follow-upc mean (SD)Baselineb mean (SD)Average over follow-upc mean (SD)
Energy (kcals)2222.3 (650.4)2202.4 (461.2)2302.7 (641.8)2188.2 (585.4)0.33
Protein (% kcals)16.0 (3.5)15.5 (2.6)15.4 (3.0)15.8 (2.4)0.12
Carbohydrates (% kcals)49.0 (8.3)54.2 (6.7)47.7 (9.2)48.7 (7.1)<0.001
Total fat (% kcals)33.6 (6.7)30.6 (5.7)35.5 (7.5)34.5 (5.5)<0.001
Saturated fatty acids (% kcals)11.3 (3.0)10.1 (2.4)12.0 (3.3)11.8 (2.6)<0.001
Monounsaturated fatty acids (% kcals)12.6 (2.9)11.3 (2.3)13.4 (3.3)13.0 (2.5)<0.001
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (% kcals)7.0 (2.2)6.6 (1.6)7.4 (2.5)7.0 (1.4)0.137
Alcohol (% kcals)3.2 (5.0)2.3 (3.6)3.2 (5.5)2.7 (4.7)0.265
Cholesterol (mg)305.8 (159.8)264.0 (110.9)308.0 (191.2)286.3 (121.7)0.09
Fiber (g)20.1 (6.5)25.5 (6.7)19.2 (6.4)19.1 (5.7)<0.001
Vitamin A (μg retinol equivalents)1754.0 (1661.2)2645.7 (1485.2)1612.1 (1411.2)1811.6 (1176.4)<0.001
α-carotene (μg)670.1 (975.8)1912.6 (1567.4)632.7 (850.1)707.8 (601.5)<0.001
β-carotene (μg)3446.0 (3093.0)7618.0 (3872.5)3207.6 (2804.9)3143.0 (1846.8)<0.001
β-cryptoxanthin (μg)41.8 (64.9)113.1 (88.9)52.9 (92.0)62.6 (72.2)<0.001
Lycopene (μg)3028.6 (3513.1)4461.4 (4234.6)2427.8 (2801.4)2082.1 (1527.1)<0.001
Lutein (μg)1663.8 (1241.5)2785.0 (1307.1)1922.7 (2048.2)1667.8 (1022.8)<0.001
Vitamin D (mg)8.1 (5.9)6.6 (12.7)7.9 (6.7)11.6 (24.6)0.038
Vitamin C (mg)237.5 (293.6)324.9 (230.3)218.3 (252.6)235.0 (279.9)0.001
Folacin (μg)403.8 (213.3)501.8 (198.0)383.0 (284.4)399.3 (214.1)<0.001
Calcium (mg)903.7 (408.1)918.6 (330.9)961.7 (563.9)916.4 (360.0)0.455
Sodium (mg)3729.1 (1243.0)3647.5 (1057.7)3767.0 (1338.7)3589.4 (963.9)0.504
Potassium (mg)3379.3 (1005.9)4097.9 (847.9)3270.5 (963.8)3089.5 (761.5)<0.001
Iron (mg)23.3 (33.1)23.3 (15.0)20.1 (11.9)19.9 (9.2)0.104
  • a From diet records with food and supplements, NDS-coded.

  • b Mean of 3-day diet records.

  • c Mean of 12 days of diet records collected at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits.

  • d P calculated for intervention versus control group for the change (average over follow-up minus baseline) in each variable with sex and baseline levels of the variable in the model.