Table 6

Summary of previous case-control studies of DDE in serum or plasma

ReferenceCountry/United States regionPeriod samples collectedNo. cases/controlsInterval between blood sample and diagnosis% postmenopausalMean DDE concentration in seruma,bORs by tertile, quartile (Q1–Q4) or quintile (Q1–Q5)a
Wolff et al., (1) 1993Northeast1985–199158/171<6 mo58.67.7 ppb11.0 ppb1.
Krieger et al., (5) 1994Northern California1964–1969150/150>6 mo; mean, 14.2 years74.643.1 ppb43.3 ppb1.01.31.3
Hunter et al., (6) 199711 States1989–1990240/240None required; dx. <6/1/9268.06.97 ppb6.01 ppb1.
Moysich et al., (10) 1998Western New York1986–1991154/192Within 3 mo after diagnosis10010.8 ng/g11.5 ng/g1.01.01.3
Høyer et al., (7) 1998Denmark1976240/477None required; diagnosis <12/31/9370.010.5 ng/ml10.2 ng/ml1.
Olaya-Contreras et al., (8) 1998Bogota, Columbia1995–1996153/153After diagnosis60.12.9 ppb3.3 ppb1.01.21.9
Helzlsouer et al., (9) 1999Maryland1974, 1979, or both1974: 235/2351974: 2 yr1974: 55.3% >5013.6 ng/ml11.5 ng/ml1.
1989: 105/1051989: no minimum1989: 75.2% >509.7 ng/ml7.9 ng/ml1.01.80.5
Høyer et al., (13) 2000Denmark1976–1978 1981–1983155/274Diagnosed after 2nd blood sample68% 1st exam, 84% 2nd examNRcNR1.
Demers et al., (14) 2000Canada1994–1997315/219 HeAfter diagnosisNRNRNRHe
307 PePe
Wolff et al., (15) 2000Northeast United States1985–1990148/2956 mo63.57.3 ng/ml6.9 ng/ml1.
  • a If the reference cited included both unadjusted and adjusted means and ORs, adjusted values were selected for the summary.

  • b Some papers report concentrations in units of ppb, others in units of ng/ml, and others in units of ng/g. These units are essentially equivalent because ppb is equivalent to ng/g, and 1 ml serum = 1.026 grams.

  • c NR, not reported.

  • d Median concentrations.

  • e H, hospital; P, population.